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Article

The First National Survey of Cadmium in Cacao Farm Soil in Colombia

1
Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria AGROSAVIA, C.I. Tibaitatá Km 14, Bogotá CO-0571, Colombia
2
Grupo de Investigación e Innovación en Cacao FEDECACAO, Federación Nacional de Cacaoteros–Fondo Nacional del Cacao, Bogotá, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2021, 11(4), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040761
Received: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 April 2021 / Published: 14 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Soil and Plant Nutrition)
This study represents the first nationwide survey regarding the distribution of Cd content in cacao-growing soils in Colombia. The soil Cd distribution was analyzed using a cold/hotspots model. Moreover, both descriptive and predictive analytical tools were used to assess the key factors regulating the Cd concentration, considering Cd content and eight soil variables in the cacao systems. A critical discussion was performed in four main cacao-growing districts. Our results suggest that the performance of a model using all the variables will always be superior to the one using Zn alone. The analyzed variables featured an appropriate predictive performance, nonetheless, that performance has to be improved to develop a prediction method that might be used nationwide. Results from the fitted graphical models showed that the largest associations (as measured by the partial correlation coefficients) were those between Cd and Zn. Ca had the second-largest partial correlation with Cd and its predictive performance ranked second. Interestingly, it was found that there was a high variability in the factors correlated with Cd in cacao growing soils at a national level. Therefore, this study constitutes a baseline for the forthcoming studies in the country and should be reinforced with an analysis of cadmium content in cacao beans. View Full-Text
Keywords: agricultural soils; cacao plantations; soil cadmium content; soil parameters; spatial distribution agricultural soils; cacao plantations; soil cadmium content; soil parameters; spatial distribution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bravo, D.; Leon-Moreno, C.; Martínez, C.A.; Varón-Ramírez, V.M.; Araujo-Carrillo, G.A.; Vargas, R.; Quiroga-Mateus, R.; Zamora, A.; Rodríguez, E.A.G. The First National Survey of Cadmium in Cacao Farm Soil in Colombia. Agronomy 2021, 11, 761. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040761

AMA Style

Bravo D, Leon-Moreno C, Martínez CA, Varón-Ramírez VM, Araujo-Carrillo GA, Vargas R, Quiroga-Mateus R, Zamora A, Rodríguez EAG. The First National Survey of Cadmium in Cacao Farm Soil in Colombia. Agronomy. 2021; 11(4):761. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040761

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bravo, Daniel, Clara Leon-Moreno, Carlos Alberto Martínez, Viviana Marcela Varón-Ramírez, Gustavo Alfonso Araujo-Carrillo, Ruy Vargas, Ruth Quiroga-Mateus, Annie Zamora, and Edwin Antonio Gutiérrez Rodríguez. 2021. "The First National Survey of Cadmium in Cacao Farm Soil in Colombia" Agronomy 11, no. 4: 761. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040761

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