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Open AccessArticle

In Vitro and in Vivo Study of Poly(Lactic–co–Glycolic) (PLGA) Membranes Treated with Oxygen Plasma and Coated with Nanostructured Hydroxyapatite Ultrathin Films for Guided Bone Regeneration Processes

1
Faculty of Dentistry, University of Seville. Avicena Street, 41009 Seville, Spain
2
Institute of Materials Science of Seville (CSIC-University of Seville), Américo Vespucio Street n 49, 41092 Seville, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2017, 9(9), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9090410
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 2 September 2017
The novelty of this study is the addition of an ultrathin layer of nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) on oxygen plasma modified poly(lactic–co–glycolic) (PLGA) membranes (PO2) in order to evaluate the efficiency of this novel material in bone regeneration. Methods: Two groups of regenerative membranes were prepared: PLGA (control) and PLGA/PO2/HA (experimental). These membranes were subjected to cell cultures and then used to cover bone defects prepared on the skulls of eight experimental rabbits. Results: Cell morphology and adhesion of the osteoblasts to the membranes showed that the osteoblasts bound to PLGA were smaller and with a lower number of adhered cells than the osteoblasts bound to the PLGA/PO2/HA membrane (p < 0.05). The PLGA/PO2/HA membrane had a higher percentage of viable cells bound than the control membrane (p < 0.05). Both micro-CT and histological evaluation confirmed that PLGA/PO2/HA membranes enhance bone regeneration. A statistically significant difference in the percentage of osteoid area in relation to the total area between both groups was found. Conclusions: The incorporation of nanometric layers of nanostructured HA into PLGA membranes modified with PO2 might be considered for the regeneration of bone defects. PLGA/PO2/HA membranes promote higher osteosynthetic activity, new bone formation, and mineralisation than the PLGA control group. View Full-Text
Keywords: guided bone regeneration; hydroxyapatite; PLGA; oxygen plasma treatment; magnetron sputtering guided bone regeneration; hydroxyapatite; PLGA; oxygen plasma treatment; magnetron sputtering
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Torres-Lagares, D.; Castellanos-Cosano, L.; Serrera-Figallo, M.Á.; García-García, F.J.; López-Santos, C.; Barranco, A.; Rodríguez-Gonzalez Elipe, A.; Rivera-Jiménez, C.; Gutiérrez-Pérez, J.-L. In Vitro and in Vivo Study of Poly(Lactic–co–Glycolic) (PLGA) Membranes Treated with Oxygen Plasma and Coated with Nanostructured Hydroxyapatite Ultrathin Films for Guided Bone Regeneration Processes. Polymers 2017, 9, 410.

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