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Polymers 2017, 9(8), 374;

Bacterial Nanocellulose from Side-Streams of Kombucha Beverages Production: Preparation and Physical-Chemical Properties

INCDCP ICECHIM, 202 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest 060021, Romania
S.C. Corax Bioner CEU S.A., 53 Sarkadi Elek, Miercurea Ciuc 530200, Romania
S.C. Laboratoarele Medica Srl, 11 Frasinului Str., Otopeni 075100, Romania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Nanomaterials)
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We focused on preparing cellulose nanofibrils by purification, separation, and mechanical treatment of Kombucha membranes (KM) resulted as secondary product from beverage production by fermentation of tea broth with symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). We purified KM using two alkaline solutions, 1 and 4 M NaOH, which afterwards were subjected to various mechanical treatments. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to evaluate the purification degree, the size and aspect of cellulose fibrils after each treatment step, the physical-chemical properties of intermediary and final product, and for comparison with micro-crystalline cellulose from wooden sources. We determined that 1 M NaOH solution leads to approx. 85% purification, while a higher concentration assures almost 97% impurities removal. XRD analysis evidenced an increase in crystallinity from 37% to 87% after purification, the characteristic diffractograms of Iα and Iβ cellulose allomorphs, and a further decrease in crystallinity to 46% after microfluidization, fact correlated with a drastically decrease in fibrils’ size. FTIR analysis evidenced the appearance of new chain ends by specific transmission bands at 2941 and 2843cm−1. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocellulose; Kombucha membranes; spray-drying; microfluidization; bacterial nanofibrils nanocellulose; Kombucha membranes; spray-drying; microfluidization; bacterial nanofibrils

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Dima, S.-O.; Panaitescu, D.-M.; Orban, C.; Ghiurea, M.; Doncea, S.-M.; Fierascu, R.C.; Nistor, C.L.; Alexandrescu, E.; Nicolae, C.-A.; Trică, B.; Moraru, A.; Oancea, F. Bacterial Nanocellulose from Side-Streams of Kombucha Beverages Production: Preparation and Physical-Chemical Properties. Polymers 2017, 9, 374.

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