Next Article in Journal
Mean-Square Radius of Gyration and Scattering Function of Semiflexible Ring Polymers of the Trefoil Knot
Next Article in Special Issue
Modification and Potential Application of Short-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate (SCL-PHA)
Previous Article in Journal
Application of Flame-Retardant Double-Layered Shell Microcapsules to Nonwoven Polyester
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bio-Based Polymers with Potential for Biodegradability
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

3D Culture of Chondrocytes in Gelatin Hydrogels with Different Stiffness

International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Takashi Tsujimoto
Polymers 2016, 8(8), 269;
Received: 3 June 2016 / Revised: 18 July 2016 / Accepted: 20 July 2016 / Published: 26 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Polymers)
Gelatin hydrogels can mimic the microenvironments of natural tissues and encapsulate cells homogeneously, which makes them attractive for cartilage tissue engineering. Both the mechanical and biochemical properties of hydrogels can affect the phenotype of chondrocytes. However, the influence of each property on chondrocyte phenotype is unclear due to the difficulty in separating the roles of these properties. In this study, we aimed to study the influence of hydrogel stiffness on chondrocyte phenotype while excluding the role of biochemical factors, such as adhesion site density in the hydrogels. By altering the degree of methacryloyl functionalization, gelatin hydrogels with different stiffnesses of 3.8, 17.1, and 29.9 kPa Young’s modulus were prepared from the same concentration of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) macromers. Bovine articular chondrocytes were encapsulated in the hydrogels and cultured for 14 days. The influence of hydrogel stiffness on the cell behaviors including cell viability, cell morphology, and maintenance of chondrogenic phenotype was evaluated. GelMA hydrogels with high stiffness (29.9 kPa) showed the best results on maintaining chondrogenic phenotype. These results will be useful for the design and preparation of scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. View Full-Text
Keywords: gelatin; hydrogel; stiffness; chondrogenic phenotype; tissue engineering gelatin; hydrogel; stiffness; chondrogenic phenotype; tissue engineering
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, X.; Chen, S.; Li, J.; Wang, X.; Zhang, J.; Kawazoe, N.; Chen, G. 3D Culture of Chondrocytes in Gelatin Hydrogels with Different Stiffness. Polymers 2016, 8, 269.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop