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Polymers 2016, 8(12), 422;

Investigating the Synergistic Effects of Combined Modified Alginates on Macrophage Phenotype

Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
Division of Materials Science & Engineering, Ames National Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Böker
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 6 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Young Talents in Polymer Science)
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Understanding macrophage responses to biomaterials is crucial to the success of implanted medical devices, tissue engineering scaffolds, and drug delivery vehicles. Cellular responses to materials may depend synergistically on multiple surface chemistries, due to the polyvalent nature of cell–ligand interactions. Previous work in our lab found that different surface functionalities of chemically modified alginate could sway macrophage phenotype toward either the pro-inflammatory or pro-angiogenic phenotype. Using these findings, this research aims to understand the relationship between combined material surface chemistries and macrophage phenotype. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion, nitrite production, and arginase activity were measured and used to determine the ability of the materials to alter macrophage phenotype. Cooperative relationships between pairwise modifications of alginate were determined by calculating synergy values for the aforementioned molecules. Several materials appeared to improve M1 to M2 macrophage reprogramming capabilities, giving valuable insight into the complexity of surface chemistries needed for optimal incorporation and survival of implanted biomaterials. View Full-Text
Keywords: alginate; macrophage phenotype; TNF-α; synergy alginate; macrophage phenotype; TNF-α; synergy

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Bygd, H.C.; Bratlie, K.M. Investigating the Synergistic Effects of Combined Modified Alginates on Macrophage Phenotype. Polymers 2016, 8, 422.

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