Next Article in Journal
Atomistic Modelling of Confined Polypropylene Chains between Ferric Oxide Substrates at Melt Temperature
Next Article in Special Issue
New Flexible Flame Retardant Coatings Based on Siloxane Resin and Ethylene-Vinyl Chloride Copolymer
Previous Article in Journal
Mapping the Mechanical Properties of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Banded Spherulites by Nanoindentation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Recent Advances in the Design of Water Based-Flame Retardant Coatings for Polyester and Polyester-Cotton Blends
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Polymers 2016, 8(10), 360;

Structure–Property Studies on a New Family of Halogen Free Flame Retardants Based on Sulfenamide and Related Structures

Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Polymer Technology and Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, Abo 20500, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Baljinder Kandola, Abderrahim Boudenne and Paul Kiekens
Received: 20 July 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1800 KB, uploaded 14 October 2016]   |  


A wide variety of molecules containing S–N or S–N–S cores were synthesized, and their flame retardant properties in polypropylene (PP), low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) were investigated. In addition, polymers or oligomers bearing the sulfenamide functionality (SN) were also synthesized. It was shown that this radical generator family based on sulfenamides is very versatile in terms of structural modifications, and the thermal decomposition range can be easily adjusted by changing the R groups attached to the core. The thermal stabilities of the different sulfenamides were examined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Radicals generated by the homolytic cleavage of the S–N or S–N–S bonds at an elevated temperature can effectively interact with the intermediate products of polymer thermolysis and provide excellent flame retardant properties. The choice of most suitable SN-structure varies depending on the polymer type. For polypropylene DIN 4102-1 B2 and UL94 VTM-2 classifications were achieved with only 0.5 to 1 wt % of sulfenamide, and, in some cases, no flaming dripping was observed. Also for LDPE thin films, sulfenamides offered the DIN 4102-1 B2 rating at low dosage. In the case of polystyrene, the very stringent UL94 V-0 classification was even achieved at a loading of 5 wt % of sulfenamide. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfenamide; radical generator; halogen free; flame retardant; polypropylene; polystyrene sulfenamide; radical generator; halogen free; flame retardant; polypropylene; polystyrene

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tirri, T.; Aubert, M.; Pawelec, W.; Holappa, A.; Wilén, C.-E. Structure–Property Studies on a New Family of Halogen Free Flame Retardants Based on Sulfenamide and Related Structures. Polymers 2016, 8, 360.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top