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An Overview of Mode of Action and Analytical Methods for Evaluation of Gas Phase Activities of Flame Retardants

Additives and Chemistry, Advanced Fibers, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, St. Gallen CH-9014, Switzerland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: A. Richard Horrocks
Polymers 2015, 7(3), 504-526; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym7030504
Received: 30 November 2014 / Revised: 13 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 February 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flame Retardant Polymers)
The latest techniques used to prove, describe and analyze the gas phase activity of a fire retardant used in polymeric materials are briefly reviewed. Classical techniques, such as thermogravimetric analysis or microscale combustion calorimetry, as well as complex and advanced analytical techniques, such as modified microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), molecular beam mass spectroscopy and vacuum ultra violet (VUV) photoionization spectroscopy coupled with time of flight MS (TOF-MS), are described in this review. The recent advances in analytical techniques help not only in determining the gas phase activity of the flame-retardants but also identify possible reactive species responsible for gas phase flame inhibition. The complete understanding of the decomposition pathways and the flame retardant activity of a flame retardant system is essential for the development of new eco-friendly-tailored flame retardant molecules with high flame retardant efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: fire retardant; gas phase activity; microscale combustion calorimeter; VUV-photoionization; halogenated; phosphorus fire retardant; gas phase activity; microscale combustion calorimeter; VUV-photoionization; halogenated; phosphorus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salmeia, K.A.; Fage, J.; Liang, S.; Gaan, S. An Overview of Mode of Action and Analytical Methods for Evaluation of Gas Phase Activities of Flame Retardants. Polymers 2015, 7, 504-526.

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