Next Article in Journal
Facile Synthesis of Nitrogen-Rich Porous Carbon/NiMn Hybrids Using Efficient Water-Splitting Reaction
Next Article in Special Issue
Highly Sustainable Dyes Adsorption in Wastewater Using Textile Filters Fabricated by UV Irradiation
Previous Article in Journal
Preparation of Organic-Inorganic Phosphorus-Nitrogen-Based Flame Retardants and Their Application to Plywood
Previous Article in Special Issue
Non-Wettable Microporous Sheets Using Mixed Polyolefin Waste for Oil–Water Separation
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Starch-Based Polymer Materials as Advanced Adsorbents for Sustainable Water Treatment: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Perspectives

Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor, Malaysia
Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor, Malaysia
Institute of Tropical Forest and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
Centre of Excellence for Biomass Utilization, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau 02600, Perlis, Malaysia
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau 02600, Perlis, Malaysia
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor, Malaysia
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
Laboratory of Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Andalas University, Padang 25163, Indonesia
Research Collaboration Center for Nanocellulose, BRIN-Andalas University, Padang 25163, Indonesia
Research Centre for Chemical Defence, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kem Perdana Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2023, 15(14), 3114;
Submission received: 16 June 2023 / Revised: 17 July 2023 / Accepted: 18 July 2023 / Published: 21 July 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water/Wastewater Treatment Applications)


Over the past three decades, chemical and biological water contamination has become a major concern, particularly in the industrialized world. Heavy metals, aromatic compounds, and dyes are among the harmful substances that contribute to water pollution, which jeopardies the human health. For this reason, it is of the utmost importance to locate methods for the cleanup of wastewater that are not genuinely effective. Owing to its non-toxicity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility, starch is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that scientists are looking into as a possible environmentally friendly material for sustainable water remediation. Starch could exhibit significant adsorption capabilities towards pollutants with the substitution of amide, amino, carboxyl, and other functional groups for hydroxyl groups. Starch derivatives may effectively remove contaminants such as oil, organic solvents, pesticides, heavy metals, dyes, and pharmaceutical pollutants by employing adsorption techniques at a rate greater than 90%. The maximal adsorption capacities of starch-based adsorbents for oil and organic solvents, pesticides, heavy metal ions, dyes, and pharmaceuticals are 13,000, 66, 2000, 25,000, and 782 mg/g, respectively. Although starch-based adsorbents have demonstrated a promising future for environmental wastewater treatment, additional research is required to optimize the technique before the starch-based adsorbent can be used in large-scale in situ wastewater treatment.

1. Introduction

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) [1] are a set of 17 global goals that aim to promote sustainable development in economic, social, and environmental ways. Among the listed SDG, SDG 6 is to ensure everyone has access to and can manage water and sanitation in a sustainable way. This makes water quality issues a priority at the international level. However, water pollution is still a major challenge to achieving SDG 6 and other goals for sustainable development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) [2], at least 2 billion people around the world consume contaminated water. This can cause health problems like diarrhea, cholera, and typhoid fever. Additionally, water pollution has big effects on ecosystems and biodiversity, leading to reduced aquatic life, the loss of wetland areas, and damage to coastal zones. Water pollution causes economic and social problems, such as making it harder for people and communities to obtain clean water. It is clear that fixing water pollution is a key part of ensuring everyone has a good future [3,4,5,6].
Studies show that more than a billion people around the world do not have access to clean water, and it is thought that water pollution is the cause of about 2.2 million deaths in developing countries [7,8]. These significant numbers show how important it is to take action to solve the global water crisis and provide clean water for human beings [9]. Water that has already been used in some capacity is considered wastewater, such as water from houses or effluent from factories [10]. Human activities such as mining and agriculture have caused water pollution, but rapid urbanization has made the situation worse, as enormous amounts of wastewater have been discharged into the environment without treatment [11,12,13]. Water resources in these circumstances must be constantly protected because misuse could be harmful to humans. Chemical, biological, or physical contaminants may be present in wastewater. It might be dangerous for human use as a result. If untreated wastewater enters the public water system, it may result in serious disease [14,15]. There are several pollutants such as heavy metal ions and pharmaceutical pollutants which cause serious water pollution all around the world [13]. It is therefore important to create a variety of effective technologies for the removal of contaminants from wastewater due to stringent legislation on the release of these harmful products.
In the past, certain industry factories did not prioritize wastewater treatment due to the high cost of setting up and operating treatment plants, as well as the lack of strict legislative enforcement regarding effluent discharge. However, there has been a shift in some countries towards a more serious approach, with stricter legislation governing industrial effluent. For instance, China implemented the Water Pollution Control Plan in 2015, which requires businesses and industries to establish wastewater treatment facilities for pollutant removal and water reuse [16,17]. Similarly, the European Nation (EN) introduced the EU Water Frame Directive in 2000, following a similar approach [18,19]. These measures aim to address the environmental impact of industrial wastewater by mandating the implementation of wastewater treatment facilities to remove pollutants and promote water reuse.
During the past three decades, several physicochemical, biological, and advanced technologies have been used for wastewater treatment such as flotation, precipitation, oxidation, biodegradation, advanced oxidation process, and others [20,21]. Researchers are now investigating new wastewater pollution removal technologies and materials relevant to sustainability. Considering the pressure on climate change and the needs in the clean water, sustainable wastewater treatment is necessary to meet our needs [22]. In contrast to conventional methods, adsorption technologies are crucial for the elimination of hazardous pollutants because of their great efficiency, extensibility, and sensitivity to harmful compounds [23]. In general, adsorption is a technique for treating wastewater that can be used to remove several chemicals from industrial effluent. Adsorption takes place when liquid molecules adhere to the surface of a solid substance. As a matter of fact, natural biopolymer-based adsorbents that are less expensive have generated a lot of academic interest [24,25].
Starch is a carbohydrate and a natural component of most plants, is commercially derived from grains and serves as an important raw material in various industries such as medicine, food, chemicals, etc. Starch has been extensively studied for its potential in wastewater treatment [26,27], it is a relatively good option for wastewater treatment due to its chemical structure, biocompatibility, and biodegradability which can enhance its utilization as green adsorbent. Cassava starch, rice starch, corn starch, and potato starch are documented botanical sources of starch [28]. Starch molecules exist in two structural forms: amylose and amylopectin. Amylopectin contains a higher glucose content compared to amylose [29]. In its natural state, amylose accounts for about 20–30% of starch and amylopectin accounts for 70–80%. Starch is primarily synthesized in the chloroplast of plant leaves or the amyloplast of plant storage organs and contains lipids as well as phosphate groups [30]. However, native starch has considerable limitations when used in wastewater treatment. These limitations include low surface area, limited thermal stability, low water solubility, low molecular weight, quick degradability in water, and a lack of reactive functional groups [31,32]. To overcome these limitations and enhance its adsorption capabilities for wastewater treatment, researchers have explored various modifications of starch. Researchers discovered that incorporating a chemical functional group into the starch backbone improves the adsorption efficacy of modified starch to a variety of pollutants [31,32,33]. Several starch modifications, including starch-based grafts, polymer nanocomposites, nanofibers, nanoparticles, activated carbon, biochar, hydrogels, aerogels, and beads, have been developed to overcome these limitations [31]. Through modification and functionalization approaches, ongoing research aims to improve the adsorption capacity and selectivity of starch-based adsorbents.
The utilization of starch-based materials for environmentally friendly water treatment is an increasingly explored area of research. In this comprehensive review, we aim to provide a detailed overview of the current advancements in starch-based materials, including their extraction from biomass, their suitability as adsorbents, and their potential applications in wastewater treatment. The review will delve into the properties of these materials and emphasize their distinctive advantages in the realm of wastewater treatment. The central focus of this review is on sustainable water treatment, shedding light on how starch-based materials can be utilized after modification to address the most pressing environmental challenges, and how their implementation in wastewater treatment can contribute to the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals. Moreover, this review will provide valuable insights into the adsorption capabilities of starch-based materials and their most promising uses in removing various pollutants such as oil, organic solvents, pesticides, heavy metals, dyes, pharmaceutical pollutants, and more. By exploring the potential of starch-based materials in treating various types of pollutants, we aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of their efficacy and potential impact in wastewater treatment. Overall, this review aims to serve as a valuable resource for researchers and professionals in the field of water treatment, providing a comprehensive analysis of the current state of starch-based materials and their potential in sustainable wastewater treatment practices.

2. Adsorption

Adsorption is a robust process in which adsorbate (gases, liquids, or solutes) adhere to the surface of the adsorbent [34], reducing the effluent volume to a minimum [35]. Adsorption of adsorbate to adsorbent surfaces can happen both physically (physisorption) and chemically (chemisorption) [36]. The interaction between the adsorbate and adsorbent are weak chemical bonds and physical forces, such as functional group changes, hydrogen bonding, electron donor acceptor, and electrostatic interaction. In water and wastewater treatment industries, adsorption is chosen due to its cost-effectiveness and dependability in comparison to other processes. Adsorption is found to be the best strategy because it is efficient, moderately simple to operate, economical, and generates few by-products. It is also extremely industrially advantageous due to its superior regeneration capabilities [37]. In addition, its uses are vast and varied, ranging from the preparation of drinkable water to the removal of non-biodegradable organic substances originating from groundwater. With its numerous advantages, it is not surprising that adsorption is widely used in the water and wastewater treatment industries. With its ability to selectively remove certain contaminants from water and its comparatively low cost, adsorption offers a possible solution to the pressing problems of water pollution and sustainability. As researchers continue to investigate new and innovative applications of adsorption in water treatment, it is anticipated that this process will play an ever-increasing role in protecting the health of our communities and the world [38,39].

2.1. Adsorbents

Adsorbents are the materials that can perform adsorption itself. These materials come in the form of porous solids with a large surface area [40]. Adsorbent selection is critical to the success of any adsorption-based water treatment process. The criteria that need to be considered to choose a material for an adsorbent is from its cost-effectiveness, availability, sustainability, suitable mechanical properties, does not disintegrate in solution, longevity, regeneration, etc. As to its performance, an adsorbent’s performance is dependent on the physical structure, activation conditions, influence of process variables, solution conditions, and the chemistry of its pollutants [41].
There are five different categories that can distinguish one adsorbent from another. These categories are natural materials, manufactured materials, modified natural materials, agricultural solid wastes and industrial by-products, and bio-sorbents. These then can be divided again into two different, much more simplified groups. Conventional adsorbents and non-conventional adsorbents. Conventional adsorbents include activated carbons, such as wood, peat, coals, coconut shells; inorganic materials, such as silica gel, natural zeolites, activated alumina, and molecular sieves, which are synthetic zeolites; and ion-exchange resins, such as polymeric organic resin, non-porous resins, and porous cross-linked polymers. As for non-conventional adsorbents, these include activated carbons from solid wastes; bio-sorbents, such as chitosan, cellulose, starch, and biomass; industrial by-products; agricultural wastes; natural materials such as clays, siliceous materials, and inorganic materials; and some miscellaneous adsorbents such as cotton waste, hydrogels, etc. [42,43]. Figure 1 presents the examples of conventional adsorbents and non-conventional adsorbents for removal of pollutants from wastewaters.
Several ways of utilizing non-conventional adsorbents have been investigated in order to develop greener, cheaper, and highly effective adsorbents to adsorb pollutants [44]. There has been a surge in the development of non-conventional adsorbents, especially those derived from biopolymers such as cellulose [45,46], chitosan [47,48], starch, and their derivatives, because they are abundant and readily available, non-toxic, low-cost, biodegradable, and renewable [49,50]. These biopolymers are intriguing owing to their physicochemical properties, high reactivity, chemical structure stability, and selectivity towards functional groups [51,52].

2.2. Starch-Based Adsorbents

Starch, the most abundant available biopolymer in the biosphere, is a homopolysaccharide with linear and branched units derived from a variety of sources, including tuber waste [53,54,55,56]. It is extensively utilized in the food industry as a source of energy in human diets, and it has discovered usages as a raw material in non-food industries for instance water treatment [57]. Native starch, on the other hand, has significant disadvantages such as low thermal stability, low surface area, slight water solubility, low molecular weight, rapid degradability in water, and a lack of reaction functional groups, which inhibit it from being utilized as a wastewater treatment adsorbent. As a result, starch must be modified to improve its adsorption efficiency towards various pollutants by changing its chemical surface structure via incorporating functional groups into the starch backbone [31,32].
Starch is composed of numerous hydroxyl groups that are easily modified by the incorporation of functional groups, such as primary amine, carboxylic or sulfonic acid to produce starch-based grafts, hydrogels and beads, polymer nanocomposites, aerogels, nanofibers, and so on, to improve its adsorption capacity for wastewater treatment [31,58]. Owing to the presence of a carboxymethyl functional group, starch derivatives, particularly carboxymethyl starch (CMS), have received a great deal of attention in both research and industry [57]. Starch that has been functionalized, grafted or crosslinked with amine [59,60], carboxylic [61], and carboxymethyl [62] groups along its chains, giving it a high affinity for heavy metal ion removal.
Conventional adsorbents, such as activated carbon, are considered good adsorbents due to their large surface area and excellent adsorption property [63], but starch-based adsorbents have several advantages in the aspects of adsorption capacity, desorption capacity, and lifetime. Starch-based adsorbents have been demonstrated to have a high adsorption capacity for both organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater when compared to conventional adsorbents owing to their porosity and the presence of many functional groups. Adsorption capacity of starch-based adsorbents can be increased not only by modifying them with functional groups but also by combining them with other materials. For instance, Li et al. [53] developed hydrogel microspheres by crosslinking hydroxyethyl starch and carboxymethyl chitosan with epichlorohydrin for removal of heavy metal ions and dye. In another study, starch-functionalized magnetic Fe2O3 has been shown to adsorb up to 2000 mg/g of lead ions from polluted water at 150–450 mg/L lead ions concentration [64], whereas activated carbon functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles has a lower adsorption capacity of 61.82 mg/g at 10–100 mg/L lead ions concentration [65]. Table 1 compares the adsorption capacities of starch-based and conventional adsorbents.
Aside from adsorption capacity, desorption efficiency is critical for reusing utilized starch-based adsorbents. According to Gunawardene et al. [76], modified starch has a desorption efficiency of more than 97%. Starch-based adsorbents are renewable and can be regenerated by washing them with reagent. Reagents for desorption include sodium hydroxide (NaOH) [77], hydrochloride acid (HCl) [77], acetone [78], and more. On the other hand, conventional adsorbents, such as activated carbon, need to be replaced periodically due to their limited lifetime. The use of activated carbon is limited due to its regeneration issues, high cost and not environmentally friendly during its production [63].
In terms of durability and longevity, conventional adsorbents and properly maintained starch-based adsorbents can degrade/decompose in a few months to a few years. However, the degradation rate of starch-based materials is accelerated at high temperatures and high humidity levels, reducing their performance [79]. Extreme operating conditions, such as high humidity, harsh chemical environments, high temperatures, or pressure, will reduce the lifetime of starch-based materials even further [80,81]. In addition, starch-based materials are easily attacked by soil microorganisms and degrade rapidly [82]. Junlapong et al. [83] developed cassava starch hydrogels adsorbents that were 80% degraded after 30 days when buried in soil. The duration of biodegradation and decomposition of starch-based adsorbents is affected by several factors, including adsorbent composition, operating conditions, and the presence of microorganisms.

2.3. Starch-Based Adsorbents for In situ and Ex Situ Water Remediation

Starch-based adsorbents can be used in the adsorption stage of water treatment. Various adsorbents will be applied at this stage to remove pollutants from the wastewater via adsorption mechanism. Starch-based adsorbents derived from cornstarch [84,85,86,87], rice flour [88], cassava starch [83,89,90], graham flour [88], and potato starch [84,85,91,92] are safe compounds with the potential to be used for in situ water remediation. Starch-functionalized iron oxide nanocomposite, for example, has been utilized to adsorb heavy metal ions from wastewater produced from different industries [64]. The adsorption efficiency of Cd(II) from tap, marine, and industrial wastewater samples ranged from 87 to 93%, 84 to 91%, and 76 to 90%, respectively, whereas the adsorption efficiency of Hg(II) ranged from 69 to 93%, 40 to 89%, and 70 to 94%, respectively. Pb(II) had the maximum adsorption efficiency of 97 to 98%, 92 to 97%, and 93 to 98% for tap, marine, and industrial wastewater samples. Additionally, these starch-based nanocomposites have the potential to be a sustainable adsorbent for metal ions removal from industrial wastewater, marine water, and tap water with 76 to 93%, 70 to 94%, and 93 to 97% of percentage recovery, respectively [64]. Table 2 provides examples of starch-based adsorbents used for in situ water treatment. Comparing wheat starch with and without methanol pretreatment, the adsorption efficiency increased from 20.50% to 32.72% with methanol pretreatment. However, corn starch pretreated with methanol has a lower adsorption efficiency than corn starch without pretreatment [93]. In another investigation conducted by Kim et al. [94], a facultative psychrophilic denitrifier (strain 47) was immobilized on macro-porous cellulose carriers, and soluble starch was utilized as an electron donor to remove nitrate contaminants from groundwater resources. Groundwater temperature was found to be an important factor in affecting nitrate removal effectiveness in in situ water remediation. At a hydraulic retention time of one hour, nitrate removal efficiency of 99.5% can be attained. These findings emphasize the importance of considering factors such as pretreatment methods and environmental conditions when utilizing starch-based adsorbents for in situ water remediation.
The optimum conditions for ex situ water remediation using starch-based adsorbents will vary depending on the type of pollutant, structure (functional group, chain length, etc.) of the starch-based adsorbent, adsorbent dose, pollutant concentration, pH of the treating bath, treatment duration, and agitation speed [35]. Starch-based adsorbents have been found to be effective at removing pollutants at concentrations ranging from a few milligrams per liter to several hundred milligrams per liter [61], as reported in Table 1. The initial pollutant concentration is a driving force in overcoming the mass transfer resistance of pollutants between water and adsorbent [95]. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of starch-based adsorbents may decrease at higher pollutant concentrations due to adsorbent surface saturation, increasing the electrostatic repulsion force between the saturated adsorbent and adsorbate in the aqueous solution [96]. Other factors, such as reaction time, pH, temperature, and competing ions in the water, may also have an impact on the performance of starch-based adsorbents [95,97].
In this case, the adsorbent of interest is starch, one of the non-conventional “green” adsorbents that are highly effective at removing a wide variety of pollutants from wastewater. They have higher adsorption capacities and longer lifetimes than conventional adsorbents. Additionally, they are highly advantageous compared to the conventional adsorbents due to their physiochemical nature, abundance, and relatively inexpensive pricing, showing their effectiveness in pollutant adsorption in water treatment processes [98,99]. Furthermore, their renewability and biodegradability make them an appealing alternative to conventional adsorbents, promoting sustainable and eco-friendly industrial process solutions.

3. Chemical Structure and Properties of Starch

Chemistry and Properties

Starches with basic chemical formula, ( C 6 H 10 O 5 ) n is a carbohydrate naturally found in many grains and vegetables, such as wheat, maize, and potatoes [100,101]. Starch is a part of polysaccharide which exists in two structural forms: amylose and amylopectin [102,103]. One of the most abundant polysaccharides in nature, starch provides us with a good supply of additional carbs [104]. The size of starch granules varies, ranging from the sub-micron elongated chloroplast granules to the comparatively enormous oval granules of potato and canna [105,106]. Biosynthesis of starch is a complex process [101,106]. It is also composed of glucose molecules [107] as shown in Figure 2.
Amylopectin and amylose are parts of starch that are layered and packed in semi-crystalline and amorphous layers in concentric growth rings [109]. Amylose, which predominantly contributes to the amorphous phase, is a basically unbranched (0.1–0.5% branched) polymer made up of α-(1–4)-linked glucose units [110]. Since amylopectin has more α-(1–6) branch points, it has a more branched structure [110]. Amylose, one of the structural forms of starch, exists as a glucose bonded together in a linear chain or helical chain. Amylose also does not dissolve in water [107]. Figure 3 shows the chemical structural of amylose.
Amylose has an interesting solution property: it can form complexes with iodine and some organic reagents [111]. The amylose/cellulose nanofiber combination has numerous exceptional qualities, including strong heat resistance and storage stability [110]. Starch has a relative amount of amylose which varies according to its source. For example, corn starch has about 28 wt.% compared to cassava starch, with 17 wt.% [112].
Amylopectin is the other structural form of starch. Depending on the botanical origin, the amylose percentage of starch granules varies, although conventional cereal starches typically include between 20 and 30 percent amylose [113]. The ability to control the functions of starch depended on the production of lengthy branch-chains of amylopectin [114]. The ability of long branch-chains of amylopectin to self-assemble structured structures and form complexes with lipids or sodium palmitate resulted in a considerable reduction in starch viscosity and slowing of starch digestion [114,115,116]. Amylopectin is a linear chain of glucose molecules, and it contains a much larger amount of glucose compared to amylose [107]. The structural form of amylopectin can be seen in Figure 4.
The weakly bonded linkages between bonding molecules make amylopectin a water-soluble component. Amylopectin is responsible for the crystalline properties of starch. Since amylose is a minor component of starch, amylopectin is the counterpart of amylose. Amylopectin is the major component of starch by weight and one of the largest molecules found in nature [117].

4. Applications for Water Treatment

Current environmental degradation on a global scale presents a serious problem for contemporary society. Industrialization, urbanization, agricultural methods, and human activities are all contributing to significant increases in pollution levels in the environment. These contaminants have the potential to have devastating effects on human health, animal health, and ecosystem health. Negative health effects may occur after these substances are ingested, absorbed, or inhaled [118,119]. Additionally, persistent organic contaminants in biota and fish, as well as the bioaccumulation of several heavy metals along the food chain, pose a major hazard to people and wildlife [19]. To detect, monitor, and remove dangerous pollutants, effective, affordable, and sustainable methods are required.
While starch can be used as one method of sustainable water treatment, native starch has low solubility in organic solvents and low adsorption ability [50,120]. The highly active hydroxyl groups on the backbone of starch can be modified by different functional groups (amino, carbonyl, carboxyl, ester, etc.) using various reaction routes like grafting, cross-linking, esterification, oxidation, and irradiation to increase its adsorption efficacy towards dyes [50,121], heavy metals [122], phenols [123], etc. Phosphorylation, followed by grafting of polymethacrylic acid onto native starch, produces phosphate and carboxylic functional groups on the starch backbone, leading to a higher tendency to make hydrogen bond with phenol [123]. In order to increase the solubility of corn and potato starches, they were modified via the acetylation method [84]. The acetylation of starch increases swelling power and solubility by weakening the bond strength between amylose and amylopectin molecules [124], conforming to the starch microparticle and favoring electrodynamic mechanisms for flocculation processes [84].
Various modified starches, like cationic starches, carboxymethyl starches, starch phosphate, starch xanthate, starch sulphate, starch carbamate, carboxyl methyl starch and so on, are cheap and have been used as efficient adsorbents for remediation over the past 10–15 years [50,122]. The modified starch-based adsorbents, such as starch-based composites and nanoparticles and starch-based hydrogels, are more useful due to their large surface area, available polar sites, and reproducibility in the degree of activation [50]. Type, botanical origin, branching/networking, chain length, granule size, degree of depolymerization, and applied modification (enzymatic, physical, chemical, etc.) all affect the desired properties of starch [125]. Starches also can be modified from activated carbon starch to starch nanocrystals and chitosan–starch nanocomposites. Other various of starch related can also be made for the adsorption process are HMS-SiO2@MSC, mesoporous activated carbon from starch (ACS), MNPs@Starch-g-poly(vinyl sulfate) nanocomposite, silica-sand/anionized-starch composite (CMS-SS), and Starch-Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (S-Mg/Al LDH).
Additionally, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), a naturally occurring cyclic oligosaccharide consisting of seven glucose units, has emerged as a highly promising adsorbent for the removal of organic micropollutants from contaminated water [126]. β-CD is derived from starch through enzymatic conversion and has demonstrated remarkable efficacy in the removal of various organic micropollutants in recent years. Dyes [127], pesticides [127], metals [126], and pharmaceuticals such as ibuprofen [128,129], naproxen [130], imipramine, bisphenol-S, procaine, ciprofloxacin [126], acetaminophen [131], salbutamol, atenolol [132], estradiol (E2) [133], and 17β-estradiol [134] have all been successfully removed using β-CD-based adsorbent. β-CD has hydroxyl groups on the exterior of the torus, making it hydrophilic, while the interior is hydrophobic [135]. As β-CD has good solubility in water, it cannot be directly used in water treatment. Nevertheless, by cross-linking β-CD with a suitable cross-linking agent, a β-CD-based adsorbent can be developed [136,137,138]. In fact, there are few types of cyclodextrin (CD): alpha-cyclodextrin (α-CD), beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD), and gamma-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). The cavity volume of α-CD is approximately 17.4 nm3, the cavity volume of β-CD is approximately 26.2 nm3, and the cavity volume of γ-CD is approximately 25.6 nm3. These cavity volumes control the size and shape of the cavity within each cyclodextrin molecule, which influences their ability to encapsulate pollutants of varied sizes and shapes [139]. These findings contribute valuable insights into the design and manufacturing of effective adsorbents from starch for wastewater treatment. The utilization of β-CD as a potential adsorbent material opens new possibilities in the field of water treatment, particularly for the removal of organic micropollutants.

4.1. Removal of Oil and Organic Solvent

There is a significant amount of concern about different contaminants inside the contaminating water, including traditional pollutants like heavy metals and organics, as well as developing micropollutants, personal care products, and substances that interfere with hormones. For purging toxins from wastewater, several researchers are investigating more sustainable materials and methods. The industries that produce chemical extraction, petrochemistry, textiles, and food all produce large amounts of oily wastewater, and this wastewater’s excessive discharge has significantly endangered both human health and the environment. These problems can be successfully overcome with starch-based adsorbents for oil and organic solvent removal. Table 3 shows examples of starch-based adsorbents for oil and organic solvent removal.
By incorporating nanoparticles into starch cryogel, Wang et al. [141] created a brand new super-hydrophobic sorbent, also known as HMS-SiO2@MSC, that may be utilized to clean up oil spills (Figure 5). HMS-SiO2@MSC showed good viability in cleaning the oil slick magnetically and by removing oil underwater. The material’s extraordinary ability to absorb oil is in part due to the barrier of trapped air where the chemical inertness of covalent bonding (Si-O-C/Si), and the structural support provided by pore walls. Pore-rich starch or Fe3O4 is being mixed with micro-/nanoparticles (SPF@SC), developed in another study by Wang et al. [144], which was intended to remove occasional oil patches. To clean up occasional oil slicks, magnets remotely control SPF@SC.
There are also variety of other methods to remove oil from the wastewater, for example, gravity sedimentation, and oil absorption by biomaterials. In contrast to emulsions stabilized by surfactants, immiscible oil or water mixtures are what these approaches are meant to separate. Membrane separation, which in this context is an advantage of the sieve effect, is widely recognized as being an effective method of handling emulsified oil or water mixtures. However, its extensive use is constrained by the unavoidable fouling caused by oil droplets or absorbed surfactants. Using pH-responsive SNPs as the coating material, starch, which is also referred to as a biological macromolecule, is employed as biodegradable super hydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity filter paper in a low-cost, easy, and eco-friendly manner. The SNPs were only coated and adhered to the filter paper’s surface. The improved filter paper has switchable super hydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity wetting behavior due to its hierarchical structure. The filter paper worked well as designed when used to filter out oil from water and oil in water emulsions at the same time. Additionally, the filter paper displayed a unique pH-sensitive quality as well as exceptional stability and recyclable qualities. Above all, the filter paper covered with starch-based nanospheres offers a creative way to separate challenging oil-in-water emulsions [147]. Figure 6 shows the application of SNPs for oil removal.

4.2. Removal of Pesticides

Given the possible risk to human health, pesticide poisoning of water has drawn a lot of attention. Many academics have recently shown interest in the removal of pesticides from water. Table 4 presents a list of starch-based adsorbents for pesticide removal. For the first time, mesoporous activated carbon from starch (ACS) was utilized to remove pesticides from water. Figure 7 illustrates the application of mesoporous ACS to remove pesticides. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Brunauer–Emmet–Teller theory (BET) were used to investigate the mesoporous ACS, and it was shown to be highly efficient at cleaning water of contaminants. In fact, it removed 11 pesticides from water better than commonly used adsorbents, such as graphitized carbon black (GCB), activated carbon (AC), C18, and primary secondary amine (PSA) adsorbent. The inclusion of functional groups such as oxygen, nitrogen, and benzene ring bonds dramatically affected adsorption. This study contributes new information to the viability of using starch-based activated carbon as an effective pesticide adsorbent in water treatment [86].
Pesticides can be removed via a variety of techniques, including as adsorption, oxidation, enzymatic biodegradation, and photocatalytic degradation. Starch-derived mesoporous activated carbon adsorption is recognized as a highly effective method due to its low starting cost, ease of operation, flexibility, simplicity of design, and insensitivity to harmful pollutants. It is also one of the few methods capable of removing pollutants while remaining unaffected by them. Additionally, it is one of the few methods that can clear contaminants without being harmed by them, making it an extremely helpful tool [151]. Aside from this, starch has been investigated for its potential to be modified in order to achieve a balance between magnetism and van der Waals interaction on magnetic surfaces [152]. In one study, a magnetic starch material, known as Fe-starch@DABA-APTES, was synthesized by modifying starch with 3,5-diaminobenzoic acid and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. This magnetic starch material was then utilized as an adsorbent for the extraction of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) [150].

4.3. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions

Industrial wastewater and groundwater often contain various inorganic components, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and others [153]. Modified starches demonstrated substantial adsorption capabilities towards heavy metals by replacing hydroxyl groups with chemically active groups [55]. A wide range of starch derivatives with amino, amide, carboxyl and other groups were synthesized and used in water treatment [154]. Corn starch, for example, can be cross-linked and carboxymethylated to actively capture harmful divalent cations, which include Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg ions present in water. By distributing 1% of the starch for a couple of minutes and then filtering the starch–metal complex, it was possible to efficiently remove about several hundred ppm of these metal ions from water at a low degree of substitution of carboxymethyl groups [57]. The starch can be easily restored through weak acidic washing, and the success of metal removal depends on avoiding highly acidic metal solutions. Increasing the levels of carboxymethylation and cross-linking can enhance the metal scavenging activity of starch, making it suitable for industrial applications [62,64,155,156,157].
Furthermore, starch can be used for the removal of heavy metal ions by grafting it with various vinyl monomers, including acrylic acid (AA), acrylic amide (AM), acrylonitrile, alkylmethacrylates, methylacrylonitrile, vinyl ketones, and 2-(dimethylamino) ethylacrylate. These polymers, despite their loosely crosslinked network structure and hydrophilic side groups, exhibit remarkable water absorption and retention capabilities [158]. In a study by Bai et al. [89], a cassava-starch-based copolymer was created by grafting AA and AM for the purpose of Cd(II) removal. This adsorbent demonstrated an adsorption capacity of 347.46 mg/g for Cd(II). Additionally, incorporating two or more polymers has become an increasingly significant strategy for the synthesis of novel biomaterials with improved properties that individual polymers could not achieve [154].
Heavy metal ions were effectively eliminated by hydrogels with charged surfaces, one example being Chen et al. [159]’s Laponite RD (LRD) cross-linked hydrogels created by repeatedly freezing and thawing. Starch and polyvinyl alcohols were employed to create synthetic hydrogels (starch/PVA/LRD hydrogels), which were used to get rid of Cd(II). The LRD concentration in the hydrogels had a significant impact on the starch-based hydrogel’s capacity for adsorption. Strongly negative charges on the surface of LRD increased with an increase in LRD content in the hydrogel, which resulted in greater Cd(II) adsorption [159]. Figure 8a depicts a diagram for heavy metal removal from wastewater using a hydrogel-based adsorbent [160]. Upon changes in pH, temperature, etc., hydrogel adsorbents can release heavy metal ions, as illustrated in Figure 8b [160].
An alternative example is the utilization of a crosslinked carboxymethyl sago starch/citric acid (CMSS/CA) hydrogel for the adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II). The CMSS/CA hydrogel exhibited optimal adsorption capacities of 64.48 mg/g for Pb(II), 36.56 mg/g for Cu(II), 16.21 mg/g for Ni(II), and 18.45 mg/g for Zn(II) [62]. Chitosan, which contains several hydroxyl and amine functional groups, can be combined with various functional groups (carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amino groups) to produce carboxylmethyl chitosan (CMC). Hydrogel microspheres (HMs) were created by combining hydroxyethyl starch and carboxymethyl chitosan for the removal of Cd(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II). The maximum adsorption capacities were found to be 32.51 mg/g for Cd(II), 47.87 mg/g for Cu(II), and 27.18 mg/g for Ni(II) [53]. Additional examples of starch-based adsorbents for heavy metal ion removal are presented in Table 5.

4.4. Removal of Dye

The manufacturing processes of industries, like the leather, paper, and textile industries, release extremely dangerous and carcinogenic chemicals into wastewater. The release of waste dyes from textile finishing poses a significant threat to both natural water resources and human well-being. [83]. Polymers, and more specifically biopolymers, have a wide structure that affords several binding sites for dye molecules. This helps to neutralize the charge that the dye molecules carry, which in turn enables effective precipitation. In applications involving the coagulation of blood, biopolymers are the material of choice since, in contrast to traditional coagulants, they do not pose a threat to human health and have a lower impact on the environment [176].
Starch is a key component in enhancing the quality of the overall nanocomposite due to its amylose chains, which have a strong affinity for anionic dye molecules. A highly recommended alternative method for removing anionic-charged dyes involves using a mixture of starch, chitosan, and glutaraldehyde in specific proportions. This mixture works by utilizing the attractive properties of starch and chitosan to effectively remove the dyes [176]. The combination of starch and chitosan creates electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions that provide benefits in dye removal effects compared to just chitosan alone. These chitosan starch nanocomposites have the potential of 90% in the removal of anionic-charged dye through coagulation-flocculation [177,178,179].
As for cationic dyes such as methylene blue (MB), MNPs@Starch-g-poly(vinyl sulfate) nanocomposite can effectively remove such dyes. This nanocomposite showed excellent adsorption of MB with a capacity of 621 mg/g and could remove as much as 90% [180]. Additionally, radical polymerization can be used to create cassava-starch-based (CS-g-PAM) hydrogels using varied cassava starch contents and polyacrylamide (PAM). At increasing cassava starch concentrations, the hydrogels’ porous structure/pore size decreased. The CS-g-PAM hydrogel with 50% cassava starch showed an outstanding MB elimination adsorption capacity of 1917 mg/g [83]. Additionally, the incorporation of catecholamine functional groups onto starch-g-(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) superabsorbent, a type of hydrogel, was achieved through the oxidative polymerization of dopamine (DA) for the purpose of adsorbing MB. A maximum adsorption capacity of 2276 mg/g was achieved at pH 9 within a 100 min timeframe [74].
Another way of removing cationic dyes such as MB and crystal violet (CV) is by utilizing silica–sand/anionized-starch composite (CMS-SS). With effects such as pH, CMS-SS can produce a high yield of adsorption capacity towards MB and CV, as illustrated in Figure 9. This is because of the high efficiency of electrostatic interactions amongst the cationic pollutants with carboxylmethyl groups. As evident in the graph below, the increase in pH results in the staggering and stable increase of adsorption capacity of CMS-SS towards cationic dye pollutants. Even compared to other adsorbents, CMS-SS still shows superior quality in cationic dye removal [161].
CMS-SS is very recyclable and easy to recover. Due to its combination with silica–sand (SS), it is very easy to separate it from aqueous solutions. After being recovered from the first adsorption cycle of removing MB and CV, CMS-SS can still be utilized in adsorbing acid green 25 (AG25) anionic dyes [161]. This is because the surface charges were changed during the separation process. All in all, CMS-SS is much cheaper and has better resistance towards acid compared to other adsorbent materials, such as magnetic adsorbents [180,181]. Its rapid settling properties put it in a beneficial position and it is perfect for water treatment industries [182,183].
Starch-based high-performance adsorptive hydrogel (STAH) is another type of adsorbent suited for the removal of MB. Synthesized by grafting polyacrylic acid (PAA) onto starch, the process continues to crosslink with N,N′-methylene-bisacrylamide (MBA). STAH comes with different isomers. These isomers are STAH10, STAH20, STAH30, STAH40, and STAH50. Based on Figure 10, five of the STAH isomers showed great adsorption capability. Among five of them, STAH20 shows the best adsorption capacity of 2967.66 mg/g. STAH adsorbent can be reused more than three times [184]. More starch-based adsorbents for dye removal are presented in Table 6.

4.5. Removal of Pharmaceutical Pollutants

The discharge of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals into ecosystems is acknowledged as a serious environmental issue, resulting in persistent and immediate impacts on the environment [195]. Starch-Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide (S-Mg/Al LDH) is a synthesized composite utilized in the adsorption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) found in various water and wastewater sources. This adsorbent performs well due to its efficiency and high adsorption rate. S-Mg/Al LDH also showed good reusability performance when tested with optimized experimental parameters. As shown in Figure 11, the recovery for this adsorbent is at a high-end percentage. This is clearly a huge benefit for industries that aim for economical workflow [196]. Examples of starch-based adsorbents for pharmaceutical pollutants removal are listed in Table 7.
To remove tetracycline, carboxymethyl-starch-grafted magnetic bentonite [198], starch-stabilized magnetic nanocomposite [199], magnetic starch polyurethane polymer nanocomposite [200], and magnetic starch nanocomposite [201] were created. Shen et al. [198] compared corn-starch-grafted magnetic bentonite (SMB) to carboxymethyl-starch-grafted magnetic bentonite (CSMB) and discovered that the CSMB had a 28% higher tetracycline adsorption capacity compared to SMB. Regarding recyclability, the adsorption capacities of CSMB experienced a decrease of over 20% after the initial cycle due to the destructive effects of nitric acid treatment on some of the functional structures, resulting in a loss of adsorption capacity. After three cycles, the adsorption capacity of CSMB was reduced by 47% to 89.5 mg/g, compared to the initial capacity of 169.7 mg/g. On the other hand, SMB exhibited a slightly lower reduction in adsorption capacity after three cycles compared to CSMB. This indicates that SMB demonstrates better recyclability.
Other pharmaceutical pollutants, such as fluvastatin [197], dox [90], and bovine serum albumin [202], have also been investigated using starch-based adsorbents. The removal of fluvastatin can be accomplished using the magnetic MOF–starch hydrogel created by Mohamed and Mahmoud [197]. The magnetic MOF–starch hydrogel was developed via microwave irradiation and demonstrated several remarkable properties. It exhibits a maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity of 782.05 mg/g, a high surface area of 528.39 m2/g, a mesoporous structure with a pore size of 2.90 nm, and a highly crystalline structure. Within this system, three types of bonding are expected to occur. Firstly, there is H-bonding between carboxylic and OH groups, leading to physisorption. Secondly, covalent bond formation between carboxylic and OH groups facilitate ester formation, resulting in chemisorption. Lastly, coordinate bond formation occurs between the oxygen donor atoms in fluvastatin and the Zinc(II) ion in the magnetic MOF–starch hydrogel, leading to chemisorption [197].
On the contrary, carboxymethyl cassava starch (CMCS)-functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized using a one-pot co-precipitation method for the removal of dox [90], whereas Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-crosslinked gelatin–starch microspheres were prepared using a modified emulsion cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde as the cross-linking agent for bovine serum album removal [202]. The functionalized CMCS core structure swelled rapidly and had more carboxyl functional group sites for effectively adsorbing dox molecules [90]. Between the pH range of 4 to 9, the carboxyl groups underwent conversion into the negatively charged carboxylate form, while dox existed in a zwitterionic form. This conversion enhances the interaction between positively charged dox ions and the negatively charged CMCS-2@Fe3O4, thus increasing the efficiency of adsorption [203]. The interaction between carboxyl groups and dox molecules involves various intermolecular forces, such as H-bonding, π -interactions, and electrostatic interactions [90]. The adsorption process of dox by CMCS-2@Fe3O4 follows a multistep mechanism [204], primarily involving chemisorption through valency forces via electron sharing or exchange between CMCS-2@Fe3O4 and dox molecules [205], potentially accompanied by physical adsorption [90]. Initially, dox molecules rapidly transfer to the surface of CMCS-2@Fe3O4 through boundary layer diffusion. Subsequently, they continue to diffuse into the adsorptive sites within the pores of CMCS-2@Fe3O4 until the adsorption capacity reaches equilibrium [90].
Adsorbents made from rape straw biomass fiber/β-CD/Fe3O4 and β-cyclodextrin nanosponge (β−CD−M) have been proven to be effective in removing ibuprofen from water and sewage. The maximum adsorption capabilities of these adsorbents are 48.29 and 86.21 mg/g, respectively [128,129]. Ibuprofen can be removed from wastewater using β-CD-M with 84% to 100% efficiency for concentrations ranging from 2.06 to 0.021 mg L−1, respectively [129]. β−CD−M can be compared to a honeycomb, with the cells being β−CD molecules and the backbone consisting of elastic urethane and allophanate chains. When the β−CD−M is added to the ibuprofen solution, it is preorganized to allow the host to better suit the requirements of the guest molecules. It has a flat ring that is substituted with linear groups, which allows the molecule to be inserted into the β−CD cavity while also incorporating the functional groups in system stabilization. The complex is formed by all aromatic and even aliphatic protons [129]. The advantages of nanosponges include high adsorption efficiency despite a small surface area, non-toxicity, the potential for multiple regeneration and reuse, modeling of specific interactions, and low production and usage cost. However, large-scale application of β-cyclodextrin in wastewater treatment may be economically unfeasible due to its relatively expensive production cost.
Table 7 contains other examples of modified β−CD composite adsorbents. For instance, imipramine, bisphenol-S, procaine, ciprofloxacin [126], and acetaminophen [131] can all be removed with β−CD grafted chitosan. With an adsorption capacity of 200.86 mg/g, 0.01 g of calcium(II)-doped chitosan/-cyclodextrin composite adsorbent was able to remove 99.88% of acetaminophen from 20.0 mL of 20.0 mg/L aqueous solution at pH 7.2. Salbutamol and atenolol can be effectively removed using an electronegative silanized β-cyclodextrin adsorbent [132], while estradiol (E2) [133] and 17β-estradiol [134] can be removed using polyethersulfone nanofibers impregnated with β-cyclodextrin and β-cyclodextrin/poly (l-glutamic acid)-supported magnetic graphene oxide, respectively. An electronegative surface modified by introducing carboxyl groups via N-[(3-Trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine triaceticacid trisodium salt (EDTS) enables an electronegative silanized β-cyclodextrin adsorbent to effectively interact with various types of organic pollutants while maintaining excellent adsorption performance over a wide pH range. After modification with EDTS, there was a substantial increase in the maximum adsorption capacities of salbutamol and atenolol, which rose by 162% and 706% respectively, reaching values of 140.24 mg/g and 236.92 mg/g. These results highlight the potential for further advancements in the field of intelligent starch derivative-based adsorbents.

5. Outlook and Challenges

The most important challenges to using starch-based polymer materials as advanced adsorbents for sustainable water treatment is the production of sludge volume and its impact on the efficiency of water treatment. Starch-based materials, while suitable for sustainable water treatment, tend to produce lower sludge volume, which will slow the process of water treatment compared to chemical-based water treatment. Additionally, the high-cost implementation of starch-based materials is another challenge, as they require several modification processes before they can be used as adsorbents. Moreover, the application of starch-based materials on a large scale for water treatment poses a challenge, as they are currently only feasible for small-scale implementation. These challenges affect the overall effectiveness of starch-based materials for water treatment and limit the scale at which they can be used sustainably.
Starch is an organic and biocompatible material suitable for both ex situ and in situ water treatment as it is non-toxic and not harmful to living organisms. Second, starch-based adsorbents are abundant, biodegradable, and renewable. Starch-based adsorbents can be regenerated and reused until the end of their lifetime. These adsorbents are safely decomposed by bacteria or other living organisms or disposed of through incineration and landfilling. Prior to disposal, non-biodegradable pollutants can be removed using desorption. Desorption requires the use of chemical reagents, which raises the cost; however, the use of starch-based adsorbents reduces pollution and solves waste disposal issues. Therefore, starch-based adsorbents hold significant potential to be used as eco-friendly materials for sustainable water treatment.

6. Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives

The effective use of starch for wastewater treatment comes from its vast availability and sustainability as a natural polysaccharide. In wastewater treatment applications, modified starch products have showed promise in the removal of a range of contaminants, including oil, organic solvents, pesticides, heavy metal ions, dyes, and pharmaceutical pollutants. An example of innovative use of starch-based materials is the development of raspberry-like starch-based polymer microspheres. These microspheres are created through Pickering polymerization and grafting of poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) onto amino-functionalized composite particles. These microspheres not only have the capability to separate oil and water, but they also exhibit simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and Indigo carmine. The efficiency of oil and water separation is influenced by the dosage of PEI. The resulting composite particles possess unique characteristics, such as rough structures, distinctive surface wettability, and positive charge. This combination enables them to simultaneously separate water-in-oil (W/O) and oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions within a specific dosage range of PEI. Moreover, the amino-functionalized composite particles carry a positive charge, which enhances their ability to effectively absorb anionic water-soluble pollutants. The removal rate of these pollutants during the oil/water separation process can reach nearly 90%.
While there are promising applications for starch-based adsorbents in environmental wastewater treatment, there is still considerable potential for future advancements in the development of intelligent adsorbents based on starch derivatives. The utilization of a trifunctional chitosan-EDTA-β-cyclodextrin adsorbent allows for the simultaneous removal of metals and organic micropollutants. This adsorbent demonstrated a monolayer adsorption capacity of 0.803 mmol g−1 for Pb(II) and 1.258 mmol g−1 for Cd(II), while exhibiting a heterogeneous adsorption capacity of 0.177 mmol g−1 for bisphenol-S, 0.142 mmol g−1 for ciprofloxacin, 0.203 mmol g−1 for procaine, and 0.149 mmol g−1 for imipramine, respectively. Further research is necessary to enhance the adsorption properties of starch- and starch-derivative-based adsorbents, optimize their adsorption capacity, and investigate methods for regeneration and reuse while minimising the reduction in adsorption capacity. Additionally, the potential applications of starch-based adsorbents can be expanded beyond wastewater treatment. Industries such as food and packaging, pharmaceuticals, and others could benefit from the utilization of starch-based adsorbents. Further exploration and discovery in this area are warranted to uncover new possibilities and opportunities.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, R.A.I. and P.S.K.; validation, M.N.A.U., A.S.N. and C.L.L.; resources, A.H.N. and S.A.H.; writing—original draft preparation, R.A.I., P.S.K., M.N.F.N. and N.H.A.H.; writing—review and editing, M.N.A.U., S.A.H., A.H.N., A.S.N., M.S.A.R., H.A., C.L.L., S.A.R. and V.F.K.; supervision, R.A.I. and M.N.F.N.; project administration, P.S.K. and S.A.H.; funding acquisition, V.F.K. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research was funded by Universiti Teknologi Malaysia for the project “The impact of Malaysian bamboos’ chemical and fibre characteristics on their pulp and paper properties”, grant number PY/2022/02318—Q.J130000.3851.21H99. The research was carried out under the programme Research Excellence Consortium (JPT (BPKI) 1000/016/018/25 (57)), provided by the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (MOHE).

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

No new data were created or analyzed in this study. Data sharing is not applicable to this article.


The authors would like express gratitude for the financial support received from the Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia under the project “The impact of Malaysian bamboos’ chemical and fibre characteristics on their pulp and paper properties, grant number PY/2022/02318—Q.J130000.3851.21H99”. The research has been carried out under the program Research Excellence Consortium (JPT (BPKI) 1000/016/018/25 (57)) provided by the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (MOHE).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. United Nations. The 17 Goals. Available online: (accessed on 29 June 2023).
  2. World Health Organization. Drinking-Water. Available online: (accessed on 29 June 2023).
  3. Cai, H.; Mei, Y.; Chen, J.; Wu, Z.; Lan, L.; Zhu, D. An Analysis of the Relation between Water Pollution and Economic Growth in China by Considering the Contemporaneous Correlation of Water Pollutants. J. Clean. Prod. 2020, 276, 122783. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Ezbakhe, F. Addressing Water Pollution as a Means to Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. J. Water Pollut. Control 2018, 1, 6. [Google Scholar]
  5. Deletic, A.; Wang, H. Water Pollution Control for Sustainable Development. Engineering 2019, 5, 839–840. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Wang, M.; Janssen, A.B.G.; Bazin, J.; Strokal, M.; Ma, L.; Kroeze, C. Accounting for Interactions between Sustainable Development Goals Is Essential for Water Pollution Control in China. Nat. Commun. 2022, 13, 730. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Ekere, N.R.; Agbazue, V.E.; Ngang, B.U.; Ihedioha, J.N. Hydrochemistry and Water Quality Index of Groundwater Resources in Enugu North District, Enugu, Nigeria. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2019, 191, 150. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Olukanni, D.O.; Ebuetse, M.A.; Anake, W.U. Drinking Water Quality and Sanitation Issues: A Survey of a Semi-Urban Setting in Nigeria. Int. J. Res. Eng. Sci. 2014, 2, 58–65. [Google Scholar]
  9. Ighalo, J.O.; Adeniyi, A.G. A Comprehensive Review of Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment in Nigeria. Chemosphere 2020, 260, 127569. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Jain, K.; Patel, A.S.; Pardhi, V.P.; Flora, J.S.S. Nanotechnology in Wastewater Management: A New Paradigm towards Wastewater Treatment. Molecules 2021, 26, 1797. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Ezugbe, E.O.; Rathilal, S. Membrane Technologies in Wastewater Treatment: A Review. Membranes 2020, 10, 89. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Chaudhry, F.N.; Malik, M.F. Factors Affecting Water Pollution: A Review. J. Ecosyst. Ecography 2017, 7, 5–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Owa, F.D. Water Pollution: Sources, Effects, Control and Management. Mediterr. J. Soc. Sci. 2013, 4, 65–68. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Halder, J.N.; Islam, M.N. Water Pollution and Its Impact on the Human Health. J. Environ. Hum. 2015, 2, 36–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Schwarzenbach, R.P.; Egli, T.; Hofstetter, T.B.; Von Gunten, U.; Wehrli, B. Global Water Pollution and Human Health. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 2010, 35, 109–136. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Chen, B.; Yang, S.; Cao, Q.; Qian, Y. Life Cycle Economic Assessment of Coal Chemical Wastewater Treatment Facing the ‘Zero Liquid Discharge’ Industrial Water Policies in China: Discharge or Reuse? Energy Policy 2020, 137, 111107. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Qin, Y.; Curmi, E.; Kopec, G.M.; Allwood, J.M.; Richards, K.S. China’s Energy-Water Nexus—Assessment of the Energy Sector’s Compliance with the ‘3 Red Lines’ Industrial Water Policy. Energy Policy 2015, 82, 131–143. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  18. Kallis, G.; Butler, D. The EU Water Framework Directive: Measures and Implications. Water Policy 2001, 3, 125–142. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Carere, M.; Dulio, V.; Hanke, G.; Polesello, S. Guidance for Sediment and Biota Monitoring under the Common Implementation Strategy for the Water Framework Directive. Trends Anal. Chem. 2012, 36, 15–24. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Crini, G.; Lichtfouse, E. Advantages and Disadvantages of Techniques Used for Wastewater Treatment. Environ. Chem. Lett. 2019, 17, 145–155. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Leslie Grady, C.P., Jr.; Daigger, G.T.; Love, N.G.; Filipe, C.D.M. Biological Wastewater Treatment, 3rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA; Taylor & Francis: Abingdon, UK, 2011. [Google Scholar]
  22. Qu, X.; Brame, J.; Li, Q.; Alvarez, P.J.J. Nanotechnology for a Safe and Sustainable Water Supply: Enabling Integrated Water Treatment and Reuse. Acc. Chem. Res. 2013, 46, 834–843. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Bădescu, I.S.; Bulgariu, D.; Ahmad, I.; Bulgariu, L. Valorisation Possibilities of Exhausted Biosorbents Loaded with Metal Ions—A Review. J. Environ. Manag. 2018, 224, 288–297. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Nasrollahzadeh, M.; Sajjadi, M.; Iravani, S.; Rajender, S. Varma Starch, Cellulose, Pectin, Gum, Alginate, Chitin and Chitosan Derived (Nano) Materials for Sustainable Water Treatment: A Review. Carbohydr. Polym. 2021, 251, 116986. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Yusof, Y.M.; Kadir, M.F.Z. Electrochemical Characterizations and the Effect of Glycerol in Biopolymer Electrolytes Based on Methylcellulose-Potato Starch Blend. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 2016, 627, 220–233. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Ahamad, T.; Naushad, M.; Mousa, R.H.; Alshehri, S.M. Fabrication of Starch-Salicylaldehyde Based Polymer Nanocomposite (PNC) for the Removal of Pollutants from Contaminated Water. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 165, 2731–2738. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Amaraweera, S.M.; Gunathilake, C.; Gunawardene, O.H.P.; Fernando, N.M.L.; Wanninayaka, D.B.; Dassanayake, R.S.; Rajapaksha, S.M.; Manamperi, A.; Fernando, C.A.N.; Kulatunga, A.K.; et al. Development of Starch-Based Materials Using Current Modification Techniques and Their Applications: A Review. Molecules 2021, 26, 6880. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Zhang, D.; Mu, T.; Sun, H. Effects of Starch from Five Different Botanical Sources on the Rheological and Structural Properties of Starch-Gluten Model Doughs. Food Res. Int. 2018, 103, 156–162. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Liu, S. An Overview of Biological Basics. In Bioprocess Engineering: Kinetics, Sustainability, and Reactor Design; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2017; pp. 21–80. ISBN 978-0-444-63783-3. [Google Scholar]
  30. Wang, S. Starch Structure, Functionality and Application in Foods; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2020. [Google Scholar]
  31. Abd El-Ghany, N.A.; Elella, M.H.A.; Abdallah, H.M.; Mostafa, M.S.; Samy, M. Recent Advances in Various Starch Formulation for Wastewater Purification via Adsorption Technique: A Review; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2023; ISBN 0123456789. [Google Scholar]
  32. Fang, K.; Deng, L.; Yin, J.; Yang, T.; Li, J.; He, W. Recent Advances in Starch-Based Magnetic Adsorbents for the Removal of Contaminants from Wastewater: A Review. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2022, 218, 909–929. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Chen, Q.; Yu, H.; Wang, L.; Ul Abdin, Z.; Chen, Y.; Wang, J.; Zhou, W.; Yang, X.; Khan, R.U.; Zhang, H.; et al. Recent Progress in Chemical Modification of Starch and Its Applications. RSC Adv. 2015, 5, 67459–67474. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Uda, M.N.A.; Gopinath, S.C.B.; Hashim, U.; Uda, M.N.A.; Adam, T.; Parmin, N.A.; Subramaniam, S.; Chinni, S.V.; Lebaka, V.R.; Gobinath, R. Controlling Arsenic Accumulation in Rice Grain under Nanomaterials-Assisted Optimal Greenhouse Set-Up. Sustainability 2023, 15, 2633. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Aly, A.A.; Hebeish, A.A. Development of Starch-Based Cationic Adsorbents for Removal of Anionic Dyes from Aqueous Systems. Int. J. Sci. Res. 2015, 4, 4–12. [Google Scholar]
  36. Kecili, R.; Hussain, C.M. Mechanism of Adsorption on Nanomaterials. In Nanomaterials in Chromatography: Current Trends in Chromatographic Research Technology and Techniques; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2018; pp. 89–115. [Google Scholar]
  37. Rathi, B.S.; Kumar, P.S.; Show, P.L. A Review on Effective Removal of Emerging Contaminants from Aquatic Systems: Current Trends and Scope for Further Research. J. Hazard. Mater. 2021, 409, 124413. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  38. Saif, S.; Adil, S.F.; Khan, M.; Hatshan, M.R.; Khan, M.; Bashir, F. Adsorption Studies of Arsenic(V) by Cuo Nanoparticles Synthesized by Phyllanthus Emblica Leaf-Extract-Fueled Solution Combustion Synthesis. Sustainability 2021, 13, 2017. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  39. Ali, I.; Arsh, A.; Mbianda, X.Y.; Burakov, A.; Galunin, E.; Burakova, I.; Mkrtchyan, E.; Tkachev, A.; Grachev, V. Graphene Based Adsorbents for Remediation of Noxious Pollutants from Wastewater. Environ. Int. 2019, 127, 160–180. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. McKay, G. Use of Adsorbents for the Removal of Pollutants from Wastewaters; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1996. [Google Scholar]
  41. Park, D.; Yun, Y.S.; Park, J.M. The Past, Present, and Future Trends of Biosorption. Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. 2010, 15, 86–102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  42. Crini, G. Recent Developments in Polysaccharide-Based Materials Used as Adsorbents in Wastewater Treatment. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2005, 30, 38–70. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  43. Crini, G. Non-Conventional Low-Cost Adsorbents for Dye Removal: A Review. Bioresour. Technol. 2006, 97, 1061–1085. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  44. Crini, G.; Lichtfouse, E.; Wilson, L.D.; Morin-Crini, N. Conventional and Non-Conventional Adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment. Environ. Chem. Lett. 2019, 17, 195–213. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  45. Anirudhan, T.S.; Shainy, F. Effective Removal of Mercury(II) Ions from Chlor-Alkali Industrial Wastewater Using 2-Mercaptobenzamide Modified Itaconic Acid-Grafted-Magnetite Nanocellulose Composite. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2015, 456, 22–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. Ali, I.; Gupta, V.K. Advances in Water Treatment by Adsorption Technology. Nat. Protoc. 2006, 1, 2661–2667. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  47. Babel, S.; Kurniawan, T.A. Low-Cost Adsorbents for Heavy Metals Uptake from Contaminated Water: A Review. J. Hazard. Mater. 2003, 97, 219–243. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Varma, A.J.; Deshpande, S.V.; Kennedy, J.F. Metal Complexation by Chitosan and Its Derivatives: A Review. Carbohydr. Polym. 2004, 55, 77–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Cheng, R.; Ou, S. Application of Modified Starches in Wastewater Treatment. In Polymer Science: Research Advances, Practical Applications and Educational Aspects; Méndez-Vilas, A., Solano, A., Eds.; Formatex Research Center S.L.: Madrid, Spain, 2011. [Google Scholar]
  50. Haq, F.; Mehmood, S.; Haroon, M.; Kiran, M.; Waseem, K.; Aziz, T.; Farid, A. Role of Starch Based Materials as a Bio-Sorbents for the Removal of Dyes and Heavy Metals from Wastewater. J. Polym. Environ. 2022, 30, 1730–1748. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Kim, S.; Chu, K.H.; Al-Hamadani, Y.A.J.; Park, C.M.; Jang, M.; Kim, D.H.; Yu, M.; Heo, J.; Yoon, Y. Removal of Contaminants of Emerging Concern by Membranes in Water and Wastewater: A Review. Chem. Eng. J. 2018, 335, 896–914. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  52. Zafar, R.; Zia, K.M.; Tabasum, S.; Jabeen, F.; Noreen, A.; Zuber, M. Polysaccharide Based Bionanocomposites, Properties and Applications: A Review. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2016, 92, 1012–1024. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. Li, W.; Wei, H.; Liu, Y.; Li, S.; Wang, G.; Guo, T.; Han, H. An in Situ Reactive Spray-Drying Strategy for Facile Preparation of Starch-Chitosan Based Hydrogel Microspheres for Water Treatment Application. Chem. Eng. Process. Process Intensif. 2021, 168, 108548. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  54. Zhang, B.; Li, X.; Xie, Q.; Tao, H.; Wang, W.; Chen, H.Q. Preparation and Characterization of Non-Crystalline Granular Starch and Corresponding Carboxymethyl Starch. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2017, 103, 656–662. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Haq, F.; Yu, H.; Wang, L.; Teng, L.; Haroon, M.; Khan, R.U.; Mehmood, S.; Bilal-Ul-Amin; Ullah, R.S.; Khan, A.; et al. Advances in Chemical Modifications of Starches and Their Applications. Carbohydr. Res. 2019, 476, 12–35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  56. Schwantes, D.; Gonçalves, A.C.; Junior Miola, A.; Coelho, G.F.; Dos Santos, M.G.; Leismann, E.A.V. Removal of Cu (II) and Zn (II) from Water with Natural Adsorbents from Cassava Agroindustry Residues. Acta Sci. Technol. 2015, 37, 409–417. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  57. Musarurwa, H.; Tavengwa, N.T. Application of Carboxymethyl Polysaccharides as Bio-Sorbents for the Sequestration of Heavy Metals in Aquatic Environments. Carbohydr. Polym. 2020, 237, 116142. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  58. Luo, H.; Dong, F.; Wang, Q.; Li, Y.; Xiong, Y. Construction of Porous Starch-Based Hydrogel via Regulating the Ratio of Amylopectin/Amylose for Enhanced Water-Retention. Molecules 2021, 26, 3999. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  59. Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Hou, C.; Qi, Z.; He, X.; Li, Y. Facile Synthesis of Monodisperse Functional Magnetic Dialdehyde Starch Nano-Composite and Used for Highly Effective Recovery of Hg(II). Chemosphere 2015, 141, 26–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  60. Zhang, F.; Wang, C.; Wang, X.; Wang, J.; Jiang, H.; Xu, K.; Bai, Y.; Wang, P. Fabrication of Raspberry-like Starch-Based Polymer Microspheres for W/O and O/W Emulsions Separation and Purification. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2023, 11, 109260. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  61. Irani, M.; Ismail, H.; Ahmad, Z.; Fan, M. Synthesis of Linear Low-Density Polyethylene-g-Poly (Acrylic Acid)-Co-Starch/Organo-Montmorillonite Hydrogel Composite as an Adsorbent for Removal of Pb(ΙΙ) from Aqueous Solutions. J. Environ. Sci. 2015, 27, 9–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. Keirudin, A.A.; Zainuddin, N.; Yusof, N.A. Crosslinked Carboxymethyl Sago Starch/Citric Acid Hydrogel for Sorption of Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ from Aqueous Solution. Polymers 2020, 12, 2465. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  63. Haroon, M.; Wang, L.; Yu, H.; Abbasi, N.M.; Zain-Ul-Abdin; Saleem, M.; Khan, R.U.; Ullah, R.S.; Chen, Q.; Wu, J. Chemical Modification of Starch and Its Application as an Adsorbent Material. RSC Adv. 2016, 6, 78264–78285. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  64. Mahmoud, M.E.; Nabil, G.M.; Zaki, M.M.; Saleh, M.M. Starch Functionalization of Iron Oxide By-Product from Steel Industry as a Sustainable Low Cost Nanocomposite for Removal of Divalent Toxic Metal Ions from Water. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 137, 455–468. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  65. Ebadollahzadeh, H.; Zabihi, M. Competitive Adsorption of Methylene Blue and Pb (II) Ions on the Nano-Magnetic Activated Carbon and Alumina. Mater. Chem. Phys. 2020, 248, 122893. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  66. Reed, B.E.; Arunachalam, S. Use of Granular Activated Carbon Columns for Lead Removal. J. Environ. Eng. 1994, 120, 416–436. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  67. McKay, G.; Bino, M.J.; Altamemi, A.R. The Adsorption of Various Pollutants from Aqueous Solutions on to Activated Carbon. Water Res. 1985, 19, 491–495. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  68. Sharma, D.; Forster, C. Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions by Granular Activated Carbon. Water 1996, 22, 153–160. [Google Scholar]
  69. Hegazy, S.H.; Mohamed, S.K. Starch-Graft-Polyacrylamide Copolymer/Fe3O4/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application as a Low-Cost Adsorbent for Ni (II) from Aqueous Solutions. J. Polym. Res. 2021, 28, 49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Kadirvelu, K.; Thamaraiselvi, K.; Namasivayam, C. Adsorption of Nickel (II) from Aqueous Solution onto Activated Carbon Prepared from Coirpith. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2001, 24, 497–505. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  71. Priyanka, M.; Saravanakumar, M.P. Ultrahigh Adsorption Capacity of Starch Derived Zinc Based Carbon Foam for Adsorption of Toxic Dyes and Its Preliminary Investigation on Oil-Water Separation. J. Clean. Prod. 2018, 197, 511–524. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  72. Inbaraj, B.S.; Sulochana, N. Basic Dye Adsorption on a Low Cost Carbonaceous Sorbent- Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies. Indian J. Chem. Technol. 2002, 9, 201–208. [Google Scholar]
  73. Tamura, T.; Miyoshi, T.; Boki, K.; Tanada, S. Adsorption of Indigo Carmine by Activated Carbon. Environ. Technol. Lett. 1988, 9, 281–286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  74. Mahmoodi-Babolan, N.; Nematollahzadeh, A.; Heydari, A.; Merikhy, A. Bioinspired Catecholamine/Starch Composites as Superadsorbent for the Environmental Remediation. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 125, 690–699. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  75. Vanjara, A.K. Colour Removal from Textile Effluent Using Refuse Derived Fuel as an Adsorbent. Indian J. Chem. Technol. 1998, 5, 53–55. [Google Scholar]
  76. Gunawardene, O.H.P.; Gunathilake, C.A.; Amaraweera, A.P.S.M.; Fernando, N.M.L.; Manipura, A.; Manamperi, W.A.; Kulatunga, K.M.A.K.; Rajapaksha, S.M.; Gamage, A.; Dassanayake, R.S.; et al. Removal of Pb(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Modified Starch. J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5, 46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  77. Dang, X.; Yu, Z.; Yang, M.; Wai, M.; Song, Y.; Wang, X.; Zhang, H. Sustainable Electrochemical Synthesis of Natural Starch-Based Biomass Adsorbent with Ultrahigh Adsorption Capacity for Cr(VI) and Dyes Removal. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2022, 288, 120668. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  78. Mittal, H.; Alhassan, S.M.; Ray, S.S. Efficient Organic Dye Removal from Wastewater by Magnetic Carbonaceous Adsorbent Prepared from Corn Starch. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2018, 6, 7119–7131. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  79. Yu, M.; Zheng, Y.; Tian, J. Study on the Biodegradability of Modified Starch/Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composite Materials. RSC Adv. 2020, 10, 26298–26307. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  80. Ju, B.; Yan, D.; Zhang, S. Micelles Self-Assembled from Thermoresponsive 2-Hydroxy-3-Butoxypropyl Starches for Drug Delivery. Carbohydr. Polym. 2012, 87, 1404–1409. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  81. Ogunsona, E.; Ojogbo, E.; Mekonnen, T. Advanced Material Applications of Starch and Its Derivatives. Eur. Polym. J. 2018, 108, 570–581. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  82. Qamruzzaman, M.; Ahmed, F.; Mondal, M.I.H. An Overview on Starch-Based Sustainable Hydrogels: Potential Applications and Aspects; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2022; Volume 30, ISBN 0123456789. [Google Scholar]
  83. Junlapong, K.; Maijan, P.; Chaibundit, C.; Chantarak, S. Effective Adsorption of Methylene Blue by Biodegradable Superabsorbent Cassava Starch-Based Hydrogel. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 158, 258–264. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  84. Posada-Velez, M.C.; Pineda-Gomez, P.; Martinez-Hernandez, H.D. Acetylated Corn and Potato Starches as an Alternative to the Toxic Inorganic Coagulants/Flocculants for Wastewater Treatment. Environ. Nanotechnol. Monit. Manag. 2023, 20, 100786. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  85. Sun, J.; Shi, M.; Wang, W. Ethanol-Water near-Azeotropic Mixture Dehydration by Compound Starch-Based Adsorbent. Trans. Tianjin Univ. 2015, 21, 427–432. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  86. Suo, F.; Liu, X.; Li, C.; Yuan, M.; Zhang, B.; Wang, J.; Ma, Y.; Lai, Z.; Ji, M. Mesoporous Activated Carbon from Starch for Superior Rapid Pesticides Removal. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 121, 806–813. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  87. Tang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhou, J.; Fang, H.; Yang, H.; Wang, F. Investigation of Pesticide Residue Removal Effect of Gelatinized Starch Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Mapping. Food Chem. 2021, 365, 130448. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  88. Md. Munjur, H.; Hasan, M.N.; Awual, M.R.; Islam, M.M.; Shenashen, M.A.; Iqbal, J. Biodegradable Natural Carbohydrate Polymeric Sustainable Adsorbents for Efficient Toxic Dye Removal from Wastewater. J. Mol. Liq. 2020, 319, 114356. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  89. Bai, W.; Fan, L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Shi, J.; Lv, G.; Wu, Y.; Liu, Q.; Song, J. Removal of Cd2+ Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Cassava Starch–based Superabsorbent Polymers. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2017, 134, 44758. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  90. Fang, K.; Li, K.; Yang, T.; Li, J.; He, W. Starch-Based Magnetic Nanocomposite as an Efficient Absorbent for Anticancer Drug Removal from Aqueous Solution. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2021, 184, 509–521. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  91. Sun, J.; Wang, W.; Wang, P.; Lv, H.; Luo, X.; Gao, H. Characterization of a Compound Starch-Based Adsorbent for Alcohol-Water Azeotrope Dehydration. Adsorpt. Sci. Technol. 2013, 31, 829–844. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  92. Wu, P.; Gao, H.; Sun, J.; Ma, T.; Liu, Y.; Wang, F. Biosorptive Dehydration of Tert-Butyl Alcohol Using a Starch-Based Adsorbent: Characterization and Thermodynamics. Bioresour. Technol. 2012, 107, 437–443. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  93. Rudrappa, T.; Neelwarne, B.; Aswathanarayana, R.G. In Situ and Ex Situ Adsorption and Recovery of Betalains from Hairy Root Cultures of Beta Vulgaris. Biotechnol. Prog. 2004, 20, 777–785. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  94. Kim, Y.S.; Nakano, K.; Lee, T.J.; Kanchanatawee, S.; Matsumura, M. On-Site Nitrate Removal of Groundwater by an Immobilized Psychrophilic Denitrifier Using Soluble Starch as a Carbon Source. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 2002, 93, 303–308. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  95. Foroutan, R.; Peighambardoust, S.J.; Mohammadi, R.; Peighambardoust, S.H.; Ramavandi, B. Development of New Magnetic Adsorbent of Walnut Shell Ash/Starch/Fe3O4 for Effective Copper Ions Removal: Treatment of Groundwater Samples. Chemosphere 2022, 296, 133978. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  96. Jiryaei Sharahi, F.; Shahbazi, A. Melamine-Based Dendrimer Amine-Modified Magnetic Nanoparticles as an Efficient Pb(II) Adsorbent for Wastewater Treatment: Adsorption Optimization by Response Surface Methodology. Chemosphere 2017, 189, 291–300. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  97. Mahmoud, G.A.; Abdel-Aal, S.E.; Badway, N.A.; Abo Farha, S.A.; Alshafei, E.A. Radiation Synthesis and Characterization of Starch-Based Hydrogels for Removal of Acid Dye. Starch Staerke 2014, 66, 400–408. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  98. Gadd, G.M. Biosorption: Critical Review of Scientific Rationale, Environmental Importance and Significance for Pollution Treatment. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 2009, 84, 13–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  99. Crini, G.; Badot, P.-M. Sorption Processes and Pollution: Conventional and Non-Conventional Sorbents for Pollutant Removal from Wastewaters; PUFC: Besançon, France, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  100. Hoover, R. Composition, Molecular Structure, and Physicochemical Properties of Tuber and Root Starches: A Review. Carbohydr. Polym. 2001, 45, 253–267. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  101. Denyer, K.A.Y.; Johnson, P.; Zeeman, S.; Smith, A.M. The Control of Amylose Synthesis. J. Plant Physiol. 2001, 158, 479–487. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  102. Pacsu, E.; Lejaren Arthur Hiller, J. Cellulose Studies IV. The Chemical Structure of Cellulose and Starch. Text. Res. J. 1946, 16, 243–248. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  103. Morrison, W.R.; Karkalas, J. Starch. In Methods in Plant Biochemistry; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 1990; Volume 2, pp. 323–352. ISBN 0124610129. [Google Scholar]
  104. Liu, X.; Chao, C.; Yu, J.; Copeland, L.; Wang, S. Mechanistic Studies of Starch Retrogradation and Its Effects on Starch Gel Properties. Food Hydrocoll. 2021, 120, 106914. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  105. French, D. Organization of Starch Granules. In Starch: Chemistry and Technology; Whistler, R.L., Bemiller, J.N., Paschall, E.F., Eds.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 1984; pp. 183–247. [Google Scholar]
  106. Buléon, A.; Colonna, P.; Planchot, V.; Ball, S. Starch Granules: Structure and Biosynthesis. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 1998, 23, 85–112. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  107. Ahmed, S.; Hussain, C.M. Green and Sustainable Advanced Materials, Volume 2: Applications; John Wiley and Sons Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2018. [Google Scholar]
  108. Saurav, K.; Majhi, M.R.; Singh, V.K. Preperation of Porous Magenesia by Decomposing an Ex-Potato Known as Starch Soluble (C6H10O5)N. Am. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 2014, 5, 120–125. [Google Scholar]
  109. Copeland, L.; Blazek, J.; Salman, H.; Tang, M.C. Form and Functionality of Starch. Food Hydrocoll. 2009, 23, 1527–1534. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  110. Xu, J.; Sagnelli, D.; Faisal, M.; Perzon, A.; Taresco, V.; Mais, M.; Giosafatto, C.V.L.; Hebelstrup, K.H.; Ulvskov, P.; Jørgensen, B.; et al. Amylose/Cellulose Nanofiber Composites for All-Natural, Fully Biodegradable and Flexible Bioplastics. Carbohydr. Polym. 2021, 253, 117277. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  111. Nakanishi, Y.; Norisuye, T.; Teramoto, A.; Kitamura, S. Conformation of Amylose in Dimethyl Sulfoxide. Macromolecules 1993, 26, 4220–4225. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  112. Mendes, J.F.; Paschoalin, R.T.; Carmona, V.B.; Sena Neto, A.R.; Marques, A.C.P.; Marconcini, J.M.; Mattoso, L.H.C.; Medeiros, E.S.; Oliveira, J.E. Biodegradable Polymer Blends Based on Corn Starch and Thermoplastic Chitosan Processed by Extrusion. Carbohydr. Polym. 2016, 137, 452–458. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  113. Obadi, M.; Qi, Y.; Xu, B. High-Amylose Maize Starch: Structure, Properties, Modifications and Industrial Applications. Carbohydr. Polym. 2023, 299, 120185. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  114. Chi, C.; Guo, X.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, B.; He, Y. A Facile Method for Isolating Long Branch-Chains of Amylopectin from Starch by Preheating and Pullulanase Treatment. Ind. Crops Prod. 2023, 191, 115987. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  115. Wang, R.; Zhang, H.; Chen, Z.; Zhong, Q. Structural Basis for the Low Digestibility of Starches Recrystallized from Side Chains of Amylopectin Modified by Amylosucrase to Different Chain Lengths. Carbohydr. Polym. 2020, 241, 116352. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  116. Kim, B.S.; Kim, H.S.; Yoo, S.H. Characterization of Enzymatically Modified Rice and Barley Starches with Amylosucrase at Scale-up Production. Carbohydr. Polym. 2015, 125, 61–68. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  117. Ratnavathi, C.V.; Komala, V.V. Sorghum Grain Quality. In Sorghum Biochemistry: An Industrial Perspective; Ratnavathi, C.V., Patil, J.V., Chavan, U.D., Eds.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2016; pp. 1–61. [Google Scholar]
  118. Akter, M.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Dhar, A.K.; Rahman, F.B.A.; Haque, S.; Ur Rashid, T.U.; Kabir, S.M.F. Cellulose-Based Hydrogels for Wastewater Treatment: A Concise Review. Gels 2021, 7, 30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  119. García-Padilla, Á.; Moreno-Sader, K.A.; Realpe, Á.; Acevedo-Morantes, M.; Soares, J.B.P. Evaluation of Adsorption Capacities of Nanocomposites Prepared from Bean Starch and Montmorillonite. Sustain. Chem. Pharm. 2020, 17, 100292. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  120. Fan, Y.; Picchioni, F. Modification of Starch: A Review on the Application of “Green” Solvents and Controlled Functionalization. Carbohydr. Polym. 2020, 241, 116350. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  121. Alvarado, N.; Abarca, R.L.; Urdaneta, J.; Romero, J.; Galotto, M.J.; Guarda, A. Cassava Starch: Structural Modification for Development of a Bio-Adsorber for Aqueous Pollutants. Characterization and Adsorption Studies on Methylene Blue. Polym. Bull. 2021, 78, 1087–1107. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  122. Gupta, A.D.; Rawat, K.P.; Bhadauria, V.; Singh, H. Recent Trends in the Application of Modified Starch in the Adsorption of Heavy Metals from Water: A Review. Carbohydr. Polym. 2021, 269, 117763. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  123. Haq, F.; Yu, H.; Wang, L.; Liu, J.; Mehmood, S.; Haroon, M.; Amin, B.U.; Fahad, S.; Uddin, M.A. Dual Modification of Starches by Phosphorylation and Grafting and Their Application as Adsorbents for the Removal of Phenol. J. Polym. Res. 2020, 27, 313. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  124. Kemas, C.U.; Ngwuluka, N.C.; Ochekpe, N.A.; Nep, E.I. Starch-Based Xerogels: Effect of Acetylation on Physicochemical and Rheological Properties. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2017, 98, 94–102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  125. Kaul, S.; Kaur, K.; Kaur, J.; Mehta, N.; Kennedy, J.F. Properties of Potato Starch as Influenced by Microwave, Ultrasonication, Alcoholic-Alkali and Pre-Gelatinization Treatments. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2023, 226, 1341–1351. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  126. Zhao, F.; Repo, E.; Yin, D.; Chen, L.; Kalliola, S.; Tang, J.; Iakovleva, E.; Tam, K.C.; Sillanpää, M. One-Pot Synthesis of Trifunctional Chitosan-EDTA-β-Cyclodextrin Polymer for Simultaneous Removal of Metals and Organic Micropollutants. Sci. Rep. 2017, 7, 15811. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  127. Cova, T.F.; Murtinho, D.; Aguado, R.; Pais, A.A.C.C.; Valente, A.J.M. Cyclodextrin Polymers and Cyclodextrin-Containing Polysaccharides for Water Remediation. Polysaccharides 2021, 2, 16–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  128. Wu, G.; Liu, Q.; Wang, J.; Xia, S.; Wu, H.; Zong, J.; Han, J.; Xing, W. Facile Fabrication of Rape Straw Biomass Fiber/β-CD/Fe3O4 as Adsorbent for Effective Removal of Ibuprofen. Ind. Crops Prod. 2021, 173, 114150. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  129. Skwierawska, A.M.; Nowacka, D.; Nowicka, P.; Rosa, S.; Kozłowska-Tylingo, K. Structural Adaptive, Self-Separating Material for Removing Ibuprofen from Waters and Sewage. Materials 2021, 14, 7697. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  130. Rafati, L.; Ehrampoush, M.H.; Rafati, A.A.; Mokhtari, M.; Mahvi, A.H. Nanocomposite Adsorbent Based on β-Cyclodextrin-PVP-Clay for the Removal of Naproxen from Aqueous Solution: Fixed-Bed Column and Modeling Studies. Desalin. Water Treat. 2018, 132, 63–74. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  131. Rahman, N.; Nasir, M. Effective Removal of Acetaminophen from Aqueous Solution Using Ca (II)-Doped Chitosan/β-Cyclodextrin Composite. J. Mol. Liq. 2020, 301, 112454. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  132. Duan, C.; Wang, J.; Liu, Q.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Y. Efficient Removal of Salbutamol and Atenolol by an Electronegative Silanized β-Cyclodextrin Adsorbent. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2022, 282, 120013. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  133. Schäfer, A.I.; Stelzl, K.; Faghih, M.; Sen Gupta, S.; Krishnadas, K.R.; Heißler, S.; Pradeep, T. Polyethersulfone Nanofibers Impregnated with β-Cyclodextrin for Increased Micropollutant Removal from Water. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 2018, 6, 2942–2953. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  134. Jiang, L.; Liu, Y.; Liu, S.; Hu, X.; Zeng, G.; Hu, X.; Liu, S.; Liu, S.; Huang, B.; Li, M. Fabrication of β-Cyclodextrin/Poly (L-Glutamic Acid) Supported Magnetic Graphene Oxide and Its Adsorption Behavior for 17β-Estradiol. Chem. Eng. J. 2017, 308, 597–605. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  135. Sandilya, A.A.; Natarajan, U.; Priya, M.H. Molecular View into the Cyclodextrin Cavity: Structure and Hydration. ACS Omega 2020, 5, 25655–25667. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  136. Przybyla, M.A.; Yilmaz, G.; Remzi Becer, C. Natural Cyclodextrins and Their Derivatives for Polymer Synthesis. Polym. Chem. 2020, 11, 7582–7602. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  137. Xia, D.; Wang, P.; Ji, X.; Khashab, N.M.; Sessler, J.L.; Huang, F. Functional Supramolecular Polymeric Networks: The Marriage of Covalent Polymers and Macrocycle-Based Host-Guest Interactions. Chem. Rev. 2020, 120, 6070–6123. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  138. Hu, X.; Xu, G.; Zhang, H.; Li, M.; Tu, Y.; Xie, X.; Zhu, Y.; Jiang, L.; Zhu, X.; Ji, X.; et al. Multifunctional β-Cyclodextrin Polymer for Simultaneous Removal of Natural Organic Matter and Organic Micropollutants and Detrimental Microorganisms from Water. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2020, 12, 12165–12175. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  139. Szejtli, J. Utilization of Cyclodextrins in Industrial Products and Processes. J. Mater. Chem. 1997, 7, 575–587. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  140. Wang, F.; Ma, R.; Tian, Y. Superhydrophobic Starch-Based Adsorbent with Honeycomb Coral-like Surface Fabricated via Facile Immersion Process for Removing Oil from Water. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2022, 207, 549–558. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  141. Wang, F.; Ma, R.; Tian, Y. Superhydrophobic Starch-Based Nanocomposite Cryogel for Oil Removal Underwater and Magnetically Guided Oil Slick Cleanup. Carbohydr. Polym. 2022, 287, 119297. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  142. Tran, D.T.; Nguyen, S.T.; Do, N.D.; Thai, N.N.T.; Thai, Q.B.; Huynh, H.K.P.; Nguyen, V.T.T.; Phan, A.N. Green Aerogels from Rice Straw for Thermal, Acoustic Insulation and Oil Spill Cleaning Applications. Mater. Chem. Phys. 2020, 253, 123363. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  143. Wang, F.; Ma, R.; Tian, Y. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic/Oleophilic Starch Cryogel via a Simple Sol-Gel Immersion Process for Removing Oil from Water. Ind. Crops Prod. 2022, 184, 115010. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  144. Wang, F.; Ma, R.; Zhan, J.; Shi, W.; Zhu, Y.; Tian, Y. Superhydrophobic/Superoleophilic Starch-Based Cryogels Coated by Silylated Porous Starch/Fe3O4 Hybrid Micro/Nanoparticles for Removing Discrete Oil Patches from Water. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2022, 291, 120872. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  145. Wang, F.; Ma, R.; Zhan, J.; Tian, Y. Superhydrophobic Modular Cryogel with Variable Magnetic-Actuated Motion Direction for Discrete Small-Scale Oil Spill Cleanup. J. Hazard. Mater. 2022, 430, 128448. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  146. Zhou, L.; Chai, K.; Yao, X.; Ji, H. Enhanced Recovery of Acetophenone and 1-Phenylethanol from Petrochemical Effluent by Highly Porous Starch-Based Hypercrosslinked Polymers. Chem. Eng. J. 2021, 418, 129351. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  147. Zhang, F.; Pei, X.; Zhai, K.; Wang, C.; Bai, Y.; Zhang, B.; Wang, Y.; Tan, Y.; Xu, K.; Wang, P. Starch-Based Nanospheres Modified Filter Paper for o/w Emulsions Separation and Contaminants Removal. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 162, 1118–1126. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  148. Chen, X.; Zhou, Q.; Liu, F.; Peng, Q.; Bian, Y. Performance and Kinetic of Pesticide Residues Removal by Microporous Starch Immobilized Laccase in a Combined Adsorption and Biotransformation Process. Environ. Technol. Innov. 2021, 21, 101235. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  149. Suo, F.; You, X.; Ma, Y.; Li, Y. Rapid Removal of Triazine Pesticides by P Doped Biochar and the Adsorption Mechanism. Chemosphere 2019, 235, 918–925. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  150. Mustofa, D.A.; Gamonchuang, J.; Burakham, R. Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction Based on Amino-Functionalized Magnetic Starch for Analysis Of Organochlorine Pesticides. Anal. Sci. 2021, 37, 1547–1552. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  151. Fallah, Z.; Zare, E.N.; Ghomi, M.; Ahmadijokani, F.; Amini, M.; Tajbakhsh, M.; Arjmand, M.; Sharma, G.; Ali, H.; Ahmad, A.; et al. Toxicity and Remediation of Pharmaceuticals and Pesticides Using Metal Oxides and Carbon Nanomaterials. Chemosphere 2021, 275, 130055. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  152. Abdullah, N.H.; Shameli, K.; Abdullah, E.C.; Abdullah, L.C. A Facile and Green Synthetic Approach toward Fabrication of Starch-Stabilized Magnetite Nanoparticles. Chin. Chem. Lett. 2017, 28, 1590–1596. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  153. Yang, C.; Jiang, J.; Wu, Y.; Fu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Chen, F.; Yan, G.; Hu, J. High Removal Rate and Selectivity of Hg(II) Ions Using the Magnetic Composite Adsorbent Based on Starch/Polyethyleneimine. J. Mol. Liq. 2021, 337, 116418. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  154. Sekhavat Pour, Z.; Ghaemy, M. Removal of Dyes and Heavy Metal Ions from Water by Magnetic Hydrogel Beads Based on Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)/Carboxymethyl Starch-g-Poly(Vinyl Imidazole). RSC Adv. 2015, 5, 64106–64118. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  155. Sancey, B.; Trunfio, G.; Charles, J.; Minary, J.F.; Gavoille, S.; Badot, P.M.; Crini, G. Heavy Metal Removal from Industrial Effluents by Sorption on Cross-Linked Starch: Chemical Study and Impact on Water Toxicity. J. Environ. Manag. 2011, 92, 765–772. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  156. Wang, S.; Zhang, C.; Chang, Q. Synthesis of Magnetic Crosslinked Starch-Graft-Poly(Acrylamide)-Co-Sodium Xanthate and Its Application in Removing Heavy Metal Ions. J. Exp. Nanosci. 2017, 12, 270–284. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  157. Chen, H.; Xie, H.; Zhou, J.; Tao, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, Q.; Wang, Y. Removal Efficiency of Hexavalent Chromium from Wastewater Using Starch-Stabilized Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron. Water Sci. Technol. 2019, 80, 1076–1084. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  158. Lu, Q.; Gao, P.; Zhi, H.; Zhao, H.; Yang, Y.; Sun, B. Preparation of Cu(II) Ions Adsorbent from Acrylic Acid-Grafted Corn Starch in Aqueous Solutions. Starch Staerke 2013, 65, 417–424. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  159. Yu, C.; Tang, X.; Liu, S.; Yang, Y.; Shen, X.; Gao, C. Laponite Crosslinked Starch/Polyvinyl Alcohol Hydrogels by Freezing/Thawing Process and Studying Their Cadmium Ion Absorption. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2018, 117, 1–6. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  160. Darban, Z.; Shahabuddin, S.; Gaur, R.; Ahmad, I.; Sridewi, N. Hydrogel-Based Adsorbent Material for the Effective Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater: A Comprehensive Review. Gels 2022, 8, 263. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  161. Li, P.; Gao, B.; Li, A.; Yang, H. Evaluation of the Selective Adsorption of Silica-Sand/Anionized-Starch Composite for Removal of Dyes and Cupper(II) from Their Aqueous Mixtures. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 149, 1285–1293. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  162. Hou, C.; Ma, H.; Cao, C.; Ding, X.; Duan, J. Adsorption of Cu(Ii) from Solution by Modified Magnetic Starch St/Fe3O4-g-p(AA-r-HEMA). New J. Chem. 2021, 45, 19032–19042. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  163. Mahdavinia, G.R.; Hasanpour, S.; Behrouzi, L.; Sheykhloie, H. Study on Adsorption of Cu(II) on Magnetic Starch-g-Polyamidoxime/Montmorillonite/Fe3O4 Nanocomposites as Novel Chelating Ligands. Starch Staerke 2016, 68, 188–199. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  164. Mahmoud, M.E.; El-Sharkawy, R.M.; Ibrahim, G.A.A. Promoted Adsorptive Removal of Chromium(vi) Ions from Water by a Green-Synthesized Hybrid Magnetic Nanocomposite (NFe3O4Starch-Glu-NFe3O4ED). RSC Adv. 2021, 11, 14829–14843. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  165. Singh, P.N.; Tiwary, D.; Sinha, I. Improved Removal of Cr(VI) by Starch Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2014, 2, 2252–2258. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  166. Xie, X.; Gao, H.; Luo, X.; Zhang, Y.; Qin, Z.; Ji, H. Polyethyleneimine-Modified Magnetic Starch Microspheres for Cd(II) Adsorption in Aqueous Solutions. Adv. Compos. Hybrid Mater. 2022, 5, 2772–2786. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  167. Xie, X.; Zhao, X.; Luo, X.; Su, T.; Zhang, Y.; Qin, Z.; Ji, H. Mechanically Activated Starch Magnetic Microspheres for Cd(II) Adsorption from Aqueous Solution. Chin. J. Chem. Eng. 2021, 33, 40–49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  168. Hosseini, S.S.; Hamadi, A.; Foroutan, R.; Peighambardoust, S.J.; Ramavandi, B. Decontamination of Cd2+ and Pb2+ from Aqueous Solution Using a Magnetic Nanocomposite of Eggshell/Starch/Fe3O4. J. Water Process Eng. 2022, 48, 102911. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  169. Konne, J.L.; Opara, K. Remediation of Nickel from Crude Oil Obtained from Bomu Oil Field Using Cassava Waste Water Starch Stabilized Magnetic Nanoparticles. Energy Environ. Res. 2014, 4, 25–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  170. Liu, F.; Peng, G.; Li, T.; Yu, G.; Deng, S. Au(III) Adsorption and Reduction to Gold Particles on Cost-Effective Tannin Acid Immobilized Dialdehyde Corn Starch. Chem. Eng. J. 2019, 370, 228–236. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  171. Ekebafe, L.O.; Ogbeifun, D.E.; Okieimen, F.E. Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of Lead (II) Sorption on Hydrolyzed Starch Graft Copolymers. J. Polym. Environ. 2018, 26, 807–818. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  172. Siddiqui, S.I.; Singh, P.N.; Tara, N.; Pal, S.; Chaudhry, S.A.; Sinha, I. Arsenic Removal from Water by Starch Functionalized Maghemite Nano-Adsorbents: Thermodynamics and Kinetics Investigations. Colloids Interface Sci. Commun. 2020, 36, 100263. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  173. Bisht, G.; Neupane, S. Arsenic Removal through Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Assisted Modified Magnetic Starch (Starch–Fe3O4) Nanoparticles. Nanotechnol. Environ. Eng. 2018, 3, 8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  174. Robinson, M.R.; Coustel, R.; Abdelmoula, M.; Mallet, M. As(V) and As(III) Sequestration by Starch Functionalized Magnetite Nanoparticles: Influence of the Synthesis Route onto the Trapping Efficiency. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 2020, 21, 524–539. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  175. An, B.; Liang, Q.; Zhao, D. Removal of Arsenic(V) from Spent Ion Exchange Brine Using a New Class of Starch-Bridged Magnetite Nanoparticles. Water Res. 2011, 45, 1961–1972. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  176. Sami, A.J.; Khalid, M.; Iqbal, S.; Afzal, M.; Shakoori, A.R. Synthesis and Application of ChitosanStarch Based Nanocomposite in Wastewater Treatment for the Removal of Anionic Commercial Dyes. Pak. J. Zool. 2017, 49, 21–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  177. Guibal, E. Interactions of Metal Ions with Chitosan-Based Sorbents: A Review. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2004, 38, 43–74. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  178. Chassary, P.; Vincent, T.; Guibal, E. Metal Anion Sorption on Chitosan and Derivative Materials: A Strategy for Polymer Modification and Optimum Use. React. Funct. Polym. 2004, 60, 137–149. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  179. Chiou, M.S.; Li, H.Y. Adsorption Behavior of Reactive Dye in Aqueous Solution on Chemical Cross-Linked Chitosan Beads. Chemosphere 2003, 50, 1095–1105. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  180. Pourjavadi, A.; Abedin-Moghanaki, A.; Tavakoli, A. Efficient Removal of Cationic Dyes Using a New Magnetic Nanocomposite Based on Starch-g-Poly(Vinylalcohol) and Functionalized with Sulfate Groups. RSC Adv. 2016, 6, 38042–38051. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  181. Li, W.; Wei, H.; Liu, Y.; Li, S.; Wang, G.; Han, H. Fabrication of Novel Starch-Based Composite Hydrogel Microspheres Combining Diels-Alder Reaction with Spray Drying for MB Adsorption. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2021, 9, 105929. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  182. Peláez-Cid, A.A.; Herrera-González, A.M.; Salazar-Villanueva, M.; Bautista-Hernández, A. Elimination of Textile Dyes Using Activated Carbons Prepared from Vegetable Residues and Their Characterization. J. Environ. Manag. 2016, 181, 269–278. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  183. Chen, P.; Cao, Z.F.; Wang, S.; Zhong, H. In Situ Nano-Silicate Functionalized Magnetic Composites by (Poly)Dopamine to Improve MB Removal. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 2018, 552, 89–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  184. Chen, L.; Zhu, Y.; Cui, Y.; Dai, R.; Shan, Z.; Chen, H. Fabrication of Starch-Based High-Performance Adsorptive Hydrogels Using a Novel Effective Pretreatment and Adsorption for Cationic Methylene Blue Dye: Behavior and Mechanism. Chem. Eng. J. 2021, 405, 126953. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  185. Xu, E.; Wu, Z.; Ding, T.; Ye, X.; Jin, Z.; Liu, D. Magnetic (Zn-St)10Fe0n (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) Framework of Macro-Mesoporous Biomaterial Prepared via Green Enzymatic Reactive Extrusion for Dye Pollutants Removal. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2019, 11, 43553–43562. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  186. Gong, G.; Zhang, F.; Cheng, Z.; Zhou, L. Facile Fabrication of Magnetic Carboxymethyl Starch/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Composite Gel for Methylene Blue Removal. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2015, 81, 205–211. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  187. Xu, E.; Ma, S.; Wu, Z.; Wang, W.; Zhang, X.; Tian, J.; Li, D.; Zhou, J.; Liu, D. Bifunctional Fe3O4 Nanoparticles as Magnet and Inducer in Bioextruded Fabrication of Starch-Based Composite with Hierarchical Pore Architecture. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2021, 190, 876–886. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  188. Sarmah, D.; Karak, N. Double Network Hydrophobic Starch Based Amphoteric Hydrogel as an Effective Adsorbent for Both Cationic and Anionic Dyes. Carbohydr. Polym. 2020, 242, 116320. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  189. Yin, J.; Fang, K.; Li, J.; Du, N.; Hu, D.; Cao, D.; Tian, R.; Deng, L.; Li, K. Competitive Adsorption Mechanisms of Pigments in Sugarcane Juice on Starch-Based Magnetic Nanocomposites. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2023, 231, 123134. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  190. Grover, A.; Mohiuddin, I.; Malik, A.K.; Aulakh, J.S.; Vikrant, K.; Kim, K.H.; Brown, R.J.C. Magnesium/Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxides Intercalated with Starch for Effective Adsorptive Removal of Anionic Dyes. J. Hazard. Mater. 2022, 424, 127454. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  191. Foroutan, R.; Peighambardoust, S.J.; Hemmati, S.; Khatooni, H.; Ramavandi, B. Preparation of Clinoptilolite/Starch/CoFe2O4 Magnetic Nanocomposite Powder and Its Elimination Properties for Cationic Dyes from Water and Wastewater. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2021, 189, 432–442. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  192. Esvandi, Z.; Foroutan, R.; Peighambardoust, S.J.; Akbari, A.; Ramavandi, B. Uptake of Anionic and Cationic Dyes from Water Using Natural Clay and Clay/Starch/MnFe2O4 Magnetic Nanocomposite. Surf. Interfaces 2020, 21, 100754. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  193. Stan, M.; Lung, I.; Soran, M.L.; Opris, O.; Leostean, C.; Popa, A.; Copaciu, F.; Lazar, M.D.; Kacso, I.; Silipas, T.D.; et al. Starch-Coated Green Synthesized Magnetite Nanoparticles for Removal of Textile Dye Optilan Blue from Aqueous Media. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 2019, 100, 65–73. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  194. Chang, P.R.; Zheng, P.; Liu, B.; Anderson, D.P.; Yu, J.; Ma, X. Characterization of Magnetic Soluble Starch-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes and Its Application for the Adsorption of the Dyes. J. Hazard. Mater. 2011, 186, 2144–2150. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  195. Patel, M.; Kumar, R.; Kishor, K.; Mlsna, T.; Pittman, C.U.; Mohan, D. Pharmaceuticals of Emerging Concern in Aquatic Systems: Chemistry, Occurrence, Effects, and Removal Methods. Chem. Rev. 2019, 119, 3510–3673. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  196. Mohiuddin, I.; Grover, A.; Aulakh, J.S.; Malik, A.K.; Lee, S.S.; Brown, R.J.C.; Kim, K.H. Starch-Mg/Al Layered Double Hydroxide Composites as an Efficient Solid Phase Extraction Sorbent for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs as Environmental Pollutants. J. Hazard. Mater. 2021, 401, 123782. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  197. Mohamed, A.K.; Mahmoud, M.E. Encapsulation of Starch Hydrogel and Doping Nanomagnetite onto Metal-Organic Frameworks for Efficient Removal of Fluvastatin Antibiotic from Water. Carbohydr. Polym. 2020, 245, 116438. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  198. Shen, Q.; Xu, M.H.; Wu, T.; Pan, G.X.; Tang, P.S. Adsorption Behavior of Tetracycline on Carboxymethyl Starch Grafted Magnetic Bentonite. Chem. Pap. 2022, 76, 123–135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  199. Okoli, C.P.; Ofomaja, A.E. Degree of Time Dependency of Kinetic Coefficient as a Function of Adsorbate Concentration; New Insights from Adsorption of Tetracycline onto Monodispersed Starch-Stabilized Magnetic Nanocomposite. J. Environ. Manag. 2018, 218, 139–147. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  200. Okoli, C.P.; Ofomaja, A.E. Development of Sustainable Magnetic Polyurethane Polymer Nanocomposite for Abatement of Tetracycline Antibiotics Aqueous Pollution: Response Surface Methodology and Adsorption Dynamics. J. Clean. Prod. 2019, 217, 42–55. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  201. Okoli, C.P.; Naidoo, E.B.; Ofomaja, A.E. Role of Synthesis Process Variables on Magnetic Functionality, Thermal Stability, and Tetracycline Adsorption by Magnetic Starch Nanocomposite. Environ. Nanotechnol. Monit. Manag. 2018, 9, 141–153. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  202. He, Q.; Song, P.; Zhang, Z.; You, Z.; Tu, W. Preparation of Magnetic Gelatin-Starch Microspheres and Adsorption Performance for Bovine Serum Album. J. Cent. South Univ. 2015, 22, 1220–1226. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  203. Chao, Y.; Zhu, W.; Wu, X.; Hou, F.; Xun, S.; Wu, P.; Ji, H.; Xu, H.; Li, H. Application of Graphene-like Layered Molybdenum Disulfide and Its Excellent Adsorption Behavior for Doxycycline Antibiotic. Chem. Eng. J. 2014, 243, 60–67. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  204. Doǧan, M.; Abak, H.; Alkan, M. Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto Hazelnut Shell: Kinetics, Mechanism and Activation Parameters. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009, 164, 172–181. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  205. Xu, T.; Qu, R.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, C.; Wang, Y.; Kong, X.; Geng, X.; Ji, C. Preparation of Bifunctional Polysilsesquioxane/Carbon. Nanotube Magnetic Composites and Their Adsorption Properties for Au (III). Chem. Eng. J. 2021, 410, 128225. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. (a) Conventional adsorbents and (b) non-conventional adsorbents for removal of pollutants from wastewaters [44].
Figure 1. (a) Conventional adsorbents and (b) non-conventional adsorbents for removal of pollutants from wastewaters [44].
Polymers 15 03114 g001aPolymers 15 03114 g001b
Figure 2. Chemical structure of starch composed of glucose molecules [108].
Figure 2. Chemical structure of starch composed of glucose molecules [108].
Polymers 15 03114 g002
Figure 3. Chemical structure of amylose.
Figure 3. Chemical structure of amylose.
Polymers 15 03114 g003
Figure 4. Chemical structure of amylopectin.
Figure 4. Chemical structure of amylopectin.
Polymers 15 03114 g004
Figure 5. Application of superhydrophobic and magnetic starch-based adsorbent to remove oil [141].
Figure 5. Application of superhydrophobic and magnetic starch-based adsorbent to remove oil [141].
Polymers 15 03114 g005
Figure 6. Application of SNPs for removing oil [147].
Figure 6. Application of SNPs for removing oil [147].
Polymers 15 03114 g006
Figure 7. Application of mesoporous ACS to remove pesticides [86].
Figure 7. Application of mesoporous ACS to remove pesticides [86].
Polymers 15 03114 g007
Figure 8. (a) The adsorption of heavy metals from wastewater using a starch-based hydrogel material and (b) Changes in structure as a result of external stimuli such as variations in pH and temperature [160].
Figure 8. (a) The adsorption of heavy metals from wastewater using a starch-based hydrogel material and (b) Changes in structure as a result of external stimuli such as variations in pH and temperature [160].
Polymers 15 03114 g008
Figure 9. Effects of increased pH towards the adsorption process of CMS-SS, CMS, SS, and ST for cationic dye removal [161].
Figure 9. Effects of increased pH towards the adsorption process of CMS-SS, CMS, SS, and ST for cationic dye removal [161].
Polymers 15 03114 g009
Figure 10. STAHn equilibrium adsorption capability for MB [184]. Values followed by the same letters are not significantly different at p ≤ 0.05.
Figure 10. STAHn equilibrium adsorption capability for MB [184]. Values followed by the same letters are not significantly different at p ≤ 0.05.
Polymers 15 03114 g010
Figure 11. Recovery measurement of NSAIDs after every 5 reuse cycles of S-Mg/Al LDHs [196].
Figure 11. Recovery measurement of NSAIDs after every 5 reuse cycles of S-Mg/Al LDHs [196].
Polymers 15 03114 g011
Table 1. Comparison of adsorption capacity between starch-based and conventional adsorbents.
Table 1. Comparison of adsorption capacity between starch-based and conventional adsorbents.
Type of AdsorbentType of
Concentration (mg/L)
Capacity (mg/g)
Starch-functionalized Iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticlesLead (II)150–4502000[64]
Activated carbon functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles10–10061.82[65]
Activated carbon5030[66]
Amine functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle dialdehyde starchMercury (II)150318.87[59]
Activated carbon-138[67]
Starch-based amino-functionalized microspheresChromium (VI)50734.8[60]
Activated carbon200145[68]
Starch-g-polyacrylamide/Fe3O4/graphene oxide nanocompositeNickel (II)20290[69]
Activated carbon prepared from coir pith2062.5[70]
Starch derived zinc carbon foam-likeMalachite green (MG)25–1001200[71]
Carbon prepared from waste jack fruit peel20–60166.37[72]
Starch-based amino-functionalized microspheresIndigo carmine (IC)50423.69[60]
Activated carbon-16.3–77.7[73]
Starch-g-(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) functionalized catecholamineMethylene blue (MB)27002276[74]
Refused derived fuel10083[75]
Table 2. Starch-based adsorbents for in situ water remediation.
Table 2. Starch-based adsorbents for in situ water remediation.
Starch-Based AdsorbentsPollutantsIn Situ RemediationRef.
Adsorption (%)Desorption (%)
Corn starch without pretreatmentBetalain36.4035.20[93]
Corn starch with methanol pretreatment21.8058.30
Wheat starch without pretreatment20.5075.01
Wheat starch with methanol pretreatment32.7244.40
Soluble starch and facultative psychrophilic denitrifier immobilized on macro-porous celluloseNitrate99.5-[94]
Table 3. Starch-based adsorbents for oil and organic solvent removal.
Table 3. Starch-based adsorbents for oil and organic solvent removal.
Starch-Based AdsorbentsPollutantsAdsorption Capacity (mg/g)Ref.
Sweet potato/Corn/Starch-based adsorbentsEthanol150[85]
Superhydrophobic starch-based adsorbentChloroform7560[140]
Superhydrophobic starch/iron oxide (Fe3O4)/silylated silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles/cryogelChloroform7780[141]
Rice straw-cationic starch aerogelOil13,000[142]
Superhydrophobic/oleophilic starch cryogelChloroform7530[143]
Superoleophilic starch-based cryogels coated by silylated porous starch/Fe3O4 hybrid micro/nanoparticlesChloroform7570[144]
Magnetic modular cryogelChloroform6190[145]
Starch derived zinc carbon foam-likeCastrol 2T2937%[71]
Gear oil2375%
Starch-graft-styrene hypercrosslinked polymersAcetophenone,93.6%[146]
Starch-based amino-functionalized microspheresOil/water separation99.9%[60]
Sweet potato/Corn/Starch-based adsorbentstert-butyl alcohol (TBA), isopropanol, ethanol-[91]
Sweet potato/Corn/Starch-based adsorbentsTBA-[92]
Table 4. Starch-based adsorbents for pesticide removal.
Table 4. Starch-based adsorbents for pesticide removal.
Starch-Based AdsorbentsPollutantsAdsorption Capacity (mg/g)Ref.
Corn/starch-based mesoporous activated carbon (ACS)pyraclostrobin66.2[86]
Microporous maize starch immobilized laccaseatrazine0.2527[148]
P-doped biochar from corn strawtriazine79.6[149]
Iron-starch modified with 3,5-diaminobenzidine and
(3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane
Table 5. Starch-based adsorbents for heavy metal ion removal.
Table 5. Starch-based adsorbents for heavy metal ion removal.
Starch-Based AdsorbentsPollutantsAdsorption Capacity (mg/g)Ref.
Starch–chitosan-based hydrogel microspheresCd(II)32.51[53]
Starch-functionalized iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticlesPb(II)2000[64]
Crosslinked carboxymethyl sago starch/citric acid hydrogelPb(II)64.48[62]
Walnut shell ash/starch/iron oxide (Fe3O4)Cu(II)45.4[95]
Silica-sand/anionized-starch compositeCu(II)383.08 ± 13.50[161]
Magnetic starch-g-polyamidoxime/montmorillonite/Fe3O4 nanocompositesCu(II)163[163]
Starch-based amino-functionalized microspheresCr(VI)734.8[60]
Starch-crosslinked magnetic ethylenediamineCr(VI)210.7[164]
Starch-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticlesCr(VI)9.02[165]
Polyethyleneimine-modified magnetic starch microspheres (PEI/MSMs)Cd(II)187.00[166]
Magnetic starch microspheres (AAM- MSM)Cd(II)39.98[167]
Cassava-starch-grafted copolymerized AA and AMCd(II)347.46[89]
Eggshell/starch/Fe3O4 nanocompositeCd(II)48.54[168]
Starch-stabilized magnetic nanoparticlesNi(II)-[169]
Starch-g-polyacrylamide/Fe3O4/graphene oxide nanocompositeNi(II)290[69]
Dialdehyde cornstarchGold(III)298.5[170]
Polyethylene-g-poly (acrylic acid)-co-starch/organo-montmorillonite hydrogelPb(II)430[61]
Starch graft poly(acrylic) acidPb(II)118.61[171]
Starch graft poly(acrylonitrile)115.83
Amine-functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle dialdehyde starchHg(II)318.87[59]
Magnetic starch/polyethyleneimineHg(II)244.87[153]
Starch-functionalized maghemite nanoparticlesAs(III)8.88[172]
CO2-assisted modified magnetic starch-Fe3O4 nanoparticlesAs(III)124[173]
Starch-functionalized magnetite nanoparticlesAs(III)68.3[174]
Starch-bridged magnetite nanoparticlesAs(V)248[175]
Carboxymethyl starch-g-polyvinyl imidazoleCu(II)83.6[154]
Table 6. Starch-based adsorbents for dye removal.
Table 6. Starch-based adsorbents for dye removal.
Starch-Based AdsorbentsPollutantsAdsorption Capacity (mg/g)Ref.
Hydrogel microspheresMethylene blue (MB)106.97[53]
Eosin yellow (EY)143.55
Zinc–starch and zerovalent iron extrudatesMB61.03[185]
Magnetism carboxymethyl starch/poly(vinyl alcohol) gelMB23.53[186]
Zinc–starch–metal–organic coordination polymers-Fe3O4 NPs compositeMB37.42[187]
Double-cross-linked amphoteric hydrogelMB133.65[188]
Congo red (CR)64.73
Starch derived zinc carbon foam-likeCrystal violet (CV)25,000[71]
Malachite green (MG)1200
Cationic tapioca starch (CTS)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (CTS@Fe3O4)Caffeic acid (CA)185[189]
Gallic acid (GA)160
Melanoidin (ME)580
Rice starchMethyl orange (MO)173.24[88]
Graham starchMO151.27
Cassava starch-based hydrogels grafted polyacrylamideMB2000[83]
Starch-g-(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)-functionalized catecholamineMB2276[74]
Starch–magnesium/aluminum-layered double hydroxideAmaranth665[190]
Sunset yellow (SY)71
Methylene violet (MV)31.15
Corn starch magnetic carbonaceous adsorbentMV344.92[78]
Carboxymethyl starch-g-polyvinyl imidazoleCR83.66[154]
Silica-sand/anionized-starch compositeMB653.31 ± 27.30[161]
CV1246.40 ± 34.10
Nile blue (NB)72.25
Magnetic nanoparticles@starch-g-poly(vinyl sulfate) nanocompositeMB621[180]
Starch-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticlesOption Blue (OB)128.83[193]
Magnetic starch-based composite hydrogel microspheresMB64.05[181]
Starch-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube compositesMO135.8[194]
Starch-based amino-functionalized microspheresIndigo carmine (IC)423.69[60]
Table 7. Starch-based adsorbents for pharmaceutical pollutants removal.
Table 7. Starch-based adsorbents for pharmaceutical pollutants removal.
Starch-Based AdsorbentsPollutantsAdsorption Capacity (mg/g)Ref.
Magnetic metal–organic frameworks (MOFs)-starch hydrogelFluvastatin782.05[197]
Carboxymethyl-starch-grafted magnetic bentoniteTetracycline169.7[198]
Starch-stabilized magnetic nanocompositeTetracycline24.194[199]
Magnetic starch polyurethane polymerTetracycline19.272[200]
Magnetic starch nanocompositeTetracycline8.79[201]
Carboxymethyl cassava starch (CMCS)-functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticlesDoxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox)235.17 ± 1.75[90]
Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles crosslinked gelatin-starch microspheresBovine serum album120[202]
Rape straw/β-CD/Fe3O4Ibuprofen48.29[128]
β-Cyclodextrin nanosponge (β−CD−M)Ibuprofen86.21[129]
Nanocomposite adsorbent based on β-cyclodextrin-PVP-clayNaproxen3.46[130]
Bio-derived chitosan-EDTA-β-cyclodextrin (CS-ED-CD) trifunctional adsorbentBisphenol-S
Procaine Imipramine
Calcium(II)-doped chitosan/β-cyclodextrin compositeAcetaminophen200.86[131]
Electronegative silanized β-cyclodextrin adsorbentSalbutamol Atenolol140.24
Polyethersulfone nanofibers impregnated with β-cyclodextrinEstradiol (E2)0.000115–0.00029[133]
β-cyclodextrin/poly (l-glutamic acid) supported magnetic graphene oxide17β-estradiol85.5[134]
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Khoo, P.S.; Ilyas, R.A.; Uda, M.N.A.; Hassan, S.A.; Nordin, A.H.; Norfarhana, A.S.; Ab Hamid, N.H.; Rani, M.S.A.; Abral, H.; Norrrahim, M.N.F.; et al. Starch-Based Polymer Materials as Advanced Adsorbents for Sustainable Water Treatment: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Perspectives. Polymers 2023, 15, 3114.

AMA Style

Khoo PS, Ilyas RA, Uda MNA, Hassan SA, Nordin AH, Norfarhana AS, Ab Hamid NH, Rani MSA, Abral H, Norrrahim MNF, et al. Starch-Based Polymer Materials as Advanced Adsorbents for Sustainable Water Treatment: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Perspectives. Polymers. 2023; 15(14):3114.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khoo, Pui San, R. A. Ilyas, M. N. A. Uda, Shukur Abu Hassan, A. H. Nordin, A. S. Norfarhana, N. H. Ab Hamid, M. S. A. Rani, Hairul Abral, M. N. F. Norrrahim, and et al. 2023. "Starch-Based Polymer Materials as Advanced Adsorbents for Sustainable Water Treatment: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Perspectives" Polymers 15, no. 14: 3114.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop