Nanotechnology is an important branch of science in therapies known as “nanomedicine” and is the junction of various fields such as material science, chemistry, biology, physics, and optics. Nanomaterials are in the range between 1 and 100 nm in size and provide a large surface area to volume ratio; thus, they can be used for various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, bacterial infections, and diabetes. Nanoparticles play a crucial role in therapy as they can enhance the accumulation and release of pharmacological agents, improve targeted delivery and ultimately decrease the intensity of drug side effects. In this review, we discussthe types of nanomaterials that have various biomedical applications. Biomolecules that are often conjugated with nanoparticles are proteins, peptides, DNA, and lipids, which can enhance biocompatibility, stability, and solubility. In this review, we focus on bioconjugation and nanoparticles and also discuss different types of nanoparticles including micelles, liposomes, carbon nanotubes, nanospheres, dendrimers, quantum dots, and metallic nanoparticles and their crucial role in various diseases and clinical applications. Additionally, we review the use of nanomaterials for bio-imaging, drug delivery, biosensing tissue engineering, medical devices, and immunoassays. Understandingthe characteristics and properties of nanoparticles and their interactions with the biological system can help us to develop novel strategies for the treatment, prevention, and diagnosis of many diseases including cancer, pulmonary diseases, etc. In this present review, the importance of various kinds of nanoparticles and their biomedical applications are discussed in much detail.
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