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Review

Modelling of Environmental Ageing of Polymers and Polymer Composites—Durability Prediction Methods

1
Institute for Mechanics of Materials, University of Latvia, Jelgavas 3, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
2
Siemens Digital Industries Software, Via Werner von Siemens 1, 20128 Milan, Italy
3
SINTEF Industry, Forskningsveien 1, 0373 Oslo, Norway
4
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands
5
Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 5 Kreutzwaldi St., 51014 Tartu, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Albertino Arteiro
Polymers 2022, 14(5), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14050907
Received: 28 January 2022 / Revised: 15 February 2022 / Accepted: 21 February 2022 / Published: 24 February 2022
Polymers and polymer composites are negatively impacted by environmental ageing, reducing their service lifetimes. The uncertainty of the material interaction with the environment compromises their superior strength and stiffness. Validation of new composite materials and structures often involves lengthy and expensive testing programs. Therefore, modelling is an affordable alternative that can partly replace extensive testing and thus reduce validation costs. Durability prediction models are often subject to conflicting requirements of versatility and minimum experimental efforts required for their validation. Based on physical observations of composite macroproperties, engineering and phenomenological models provide manageable representations of complex mechanistic models. This review offers a systematised overview of the state-of-the-art models and accelerated testing methodologies for predicting the long-term mechanical performance of polymers and polymer composites. Accelerated testing methods for predicting static, creep, and fatig ue lifetime of various polymers and polymer composites under environmental factors’ single or coupled influence are overviewed. Service lifetimes are predicted by means of degradation rate models, superposition principles, and parametrisation techniques. This review is a continuation of the authors’ work on modelling environmental ageing of polymer composites: the first part of the review covered multiscale and modular modelling methods of environmental degradation. The present work is focused on modelling engineering mechanical properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymer composites; fibre reinforced composites; biodegradable polymers; environmental ageing; durability; accelerated testing; modelling; lifetime prediction; superposition principles; creep; fatigue; plastic failure polymer composites; fibre reinforced composites; biodegradable polymers; environmental ageing; durability; accelerated testing; modelling; lifetime prediction; superposition principles; creep; fatigue; plastic failure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Starkova, O.; Gagani, A.I.; Karl, C.W.; Rocha, I.B.C.M.; Burlakovs, J.; Krauklis, A.E. Modelling of Environmental Ageing of Polymers and Polymer Composites—Durability Prediction Methods. Polymers 2022, 14, 907. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14050907

AMA Style

Starkova O, Gagani AI, Karl CW, Rocha IBCM, Burlakovs J, Krauklis AE. Modelling of Environmental Ageing of Polymers and Polymer Composites—Durability Prediction Methods. Polymers. 2022; 14(5):907. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14050907

Chicago/Turabian Style

Starkova, Olesja, Abedin I. Gagani, Christian W. Karl, Iuri B. C. M. Rocha, Juris Burlakovs, and Andrey E. Krauklis. 2022. "Modelling of Environmental Ageing of Polymers and Polymer Composites—Durability Prediction Methods" Polymers 14, no. 5: 907. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14050907

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