Cardiac surgical approaches require the development of new materials regardless of the polyurethanes used for pulsatile blood pumps; therefore, an innovative biomaterial, a copolymer of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and dimer fatty acid (dilinoleic acid) modified with D-glucitol, hereafter referred to as PET/DLA, has been developed, showing non-hemolytic and atrombogenic properties and resistance to biodegradation. The aim of this work was to evaluate in vivo inflammatory responses to intramuscular implantation of PET/DLA biomaterials of different compositions (hard to soft segments). Two copolymers containing 70 and 65 wt.% of hard segments, as in poly(ethylene terephthalate) and dilinoleic acid in soft segments modified with D-glucitol, were used for implantation tests to monitor tissue response. Medical grade polyurethanes Bionate II 90A and Bionate II 55 were used as reference materials. After euthanasia of animals (New Zealand White rabbits, n = 49), internal organs and tissues that contacted the material were collected for histopathological examination. The following parameters were determined: peripheral blood count, blood smear with May Grunwald–Giemsa staining, and serum C-reactive protein (CRPP). The healing process observed at the implantation site of the new materials after 12 weeks indicated normal progressive collagenization of the scar, with an indication of the inflammatory–resorptive process. The analysis of the chemical structure of explants 12 weeks after implantation showed good stability of the tested copolymers in contact with living tissues. Overall, the obtained results indicate great potential for PET/DLA in medical applications; however, final verification of its applicability as a structural material in prostheses is needed.
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