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Article

Wood Warping Composite by 3D Printing

1
Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 9190401, Israel
2
Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 7610001, Israel
3
Racah Institute of Physics, the Hebrew University, Jerusalem 9190401, Israel
4
Alpha Program, Future Scientist Center, Jerusalem 9190401, Israel
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Mirko Kariž
Polymers 2022, 14(4), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040733
Received: 3 January 2022 / Revised: 8 February 2022 / Accepted: 12 February 2022 / Published: 14 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing in Wood Science)
Wood warping is a phenomenon known as a deformation in wood that occurs when changes in moisture content cause an unevenly volumetric change due to fiber orientation. Here we present an investigation of wood warped objects that were fabricated by 3D printing. Similar to natural wood warping, water evaporation causes volume decrease of the printed object, but in contrast, the printing pathway pattern and flow rate dictate the direction of the alignment and its intensity, all of which can be predesigned and affect the resulting structure after drying. The fabrication of the objects was performed by an extrusion-based 3D printing technique that enables the deposition of water-based inks into 3D objects. The printing ink was composed of 100% wood-based materials, wood flour, and plant-extracted natural binders cellulose nanocrystals, and xyloglucan, without the need for any additional synthetic resins. Two archetypal structures were printed: cylindrical structure and helices. In the former, we identified a new length scale that gauges the effect of gravity on the shape. In the latter, the structure exhibited a shape transition analogous to the opening of a seedpod, quantitatively reproducing theoretical predictions. Together, by carefully tuning the flow rate and printing pathway, the morphology of the fully dried wooden objects can be controlled. Hence, it is possible to design the printing of wet objects that will form different final 3D structures. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; nanocellulose; shape programming; wood 3D printing; nanocellulose; shape programming; wood
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kam, D.; Levin, I.; Kutner, Y.; Lanciano, O.; Sharon, E.; Shoseyov, O.; Magdassi, S. Wood Warping Composite by 3D Printing. Polymers 2022, 14, 733. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040733

AMA Style

Kam D, Levin I, Kutner Y, Lanciano O, Sharon E, Shoseyov O, Magdassi S. Wood Warping Composite by 3D Printing. Polymers. 2022; 14(4):733. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040733

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kam, Doron, Ido Levin, Yinnon Kutner, Omri Lanciano, Eran Sharon, Oded Shoseyov, and Shlomo Magdassi. 2022. "Wood Warping Composite by 3D Printing" Polymers 14, no. 4: 733. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040733

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