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Article

X-ray Ptychographic Imaging and Spectroscopic Studies of Plasma-Treated Plastic Films

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Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Straße 2, 17489 Greifswald, Germany
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Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Annamaria Visco
Polymers 2022, 14(13), 2528; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14132528
Received: 20 May 2022 / Revised: 15 June 2022 / Accepted: 16 June 2022 / Published: 21 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Analysis and Characterization)
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a thermoplastic polyester with numerous applications in industry. However, it requires surface modification on an industrial scale for printing and coating processes and plasma treatment is one of the most commonly used techniques to increase the hydrophilicity of the PET films. Systematic improvement of the surface modification by adaption of the plasma process can be aided by a comprehensive understanding of the surface morphology and chemistry. However, imaging large surface areas (tens of microns) with a resolution that allows understanding the surface quality and modification is challenging. As a proof-of-principle, plasma-treated PET films were used to demonstrate the capabilities of X-ray ptychography, currently under development at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH at DESY, for imaging macroscopic samples. In combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), this new technique was used to study the effects of different plasma treatment processes on PET plastic films. The studies on the surface morphology were complemented by investigations of the surface chemistry using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). While both imaging techniques consistently showed an increase in roughness and change in morphology of the PET films after plasma treatment, X-ray ptychography can provide additional information on the three-dimensional morphology of the surface. At the same time, the chemical analysis shows an increase in the oxygen content and polarity of the surface without significant damage to the polymer, which is important for printing and coating processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: corona discharge; polyethylene terephthalate; scanning electron microscopy; free electron laser; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy corona discharge; polyethylene terephthalate; scanning electron microscopy; free electron laser; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ravandeh, M.; Mehrjoo, M.; Kharitonov, K.; Schäfer, J.; Quade, A.; Honnorat, B.; Ruiz-Lopez, M.; Keitel, B.; Kreis, S.; Pan, R.; Gang, S.-g.; Wende, K.; Plönjes, E. X-ray Ptychographic Imaging and Spectroscopic Studies of Plasma-Treated Plastic Films. Polymers 2022, 14, 2528. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14132528

AMA Style

Ravandeh M, Mehrjoo M, Kharitonov K, Schäfer J, Quade A, Honnorat B, Ruiz-Lopez M, Keitel B, Kreis S, Pan R, Gang S-g, Wende K, Plönjes E. X-ray Ptychographic Imaging and Spectroscopic Studies of Plasma-Treated Plastic Films. Polymers. 2022; 14(13):2528. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14132528

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ravandeh, Mehdi, Masoud Mehrjoo, Konstantin Kharitonov, Jan Schäfer, Antje Quade, Bruno Honnorat, Mabel Ruiz-Lopez, Barbara Keitel, Svea Kreis, Rui Pan, Seung-gi Gang, Kristian Wende, and Elke Plönjes. 2022. "X-ray Ptychographic Imaging and Spectroscopic Studies of Plasma-Treated Plastic Films" Polymers 14, no. 13: 2528. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14132528

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