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Article

Application of Poly-L-Lysine for Tailoring Graphene Oxide Mediated Contact Formation between Lithium Titanium Oxide LTO Surfaces for Batteries

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Chemistry Department, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel
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National Laboratory of Nanotechnology LANOTEC, National Center of High Technology (CeNAT-CONARE), 1174-1200, Calle Costa Rica, Pavas, San José 10109, Costa Rica
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Laboratorio de Polímeros (POLIUNA), Universidad Nacional, Avenida 1, Calle 9 Heredia 86 Heredia, Heredia 40101, Costa Rica
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Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
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Adhesive Bonding Technology and Surfaces, Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM, Wiener Straße 12, 28359 Bremen, Germany
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Faculty of Production Engineering, University of Bremen, Am Fallturm 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Pablo A. García-Salaberri and María T. Pérez-Prior
Polymers 2022, 14(11), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14112150
Received: 12 April 2022 / Revised: 17 May 2022 / Accepted: 18 May 2022 / Published: 25 May 2022
When producing stable electrodes, polymeric binders are highly functional materials that are effective in dispersing lithium-based oxides such as Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and carbon-based materials and establishing the conductivity of the multiphase composites. Nowadays, binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are used, requiring dedicated recycling strategies due to their low biodegradability and use of toxic solvents to dissolve it. Better structuring of the carbon layers and a low amount of binder could reduce the number of inactive materials in the electrode. In this study, we use computational and experimental methods to explore the use of the poly amino acid poly-L-lysine (PLL) as a novel biodegradable binder that is placed directly between nanostructured LTO and reduced graphene oxide. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations allowed us to determine that the (111) surface is the most stable LTO surface exposed to lysine. We performed Kubo–Greenwood electrical conductivity (KGEC) calculations to determine the electrical conductivity values for the hybrid LTO–lysine–rGO system. We found that the presence of the lysine-based binder at the interface increased the conductivity of the interface by four-fold relative to LTO–rGO in a lysine monolayer configuration, while two-stack lysine molecules resulted in 0.3-fold (in the plane orientation) and 0.26-fold (out of plane orientation) increases. These outcomes suggest that monolayers of lysine would specifically favor the conductivity. Experimentally, the assembly of graphene oxide on poly-L-lysine-TiO2 with sputter-deposited titania as a smooth and hydrophilic model substrate was investigated using a layer-by-layer (LBL) approach to realize the required composite morphology. Characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the formed layers. Our experimental results show that thin layers of rGO were assembled on the TiO2 using PLL. Furthermore, the PLL adsorbates decrease the work function difference between the rGO- and the non-rGO-coated surface and increased the specific discharge capacity of the LTO–rGO composite material. Further experimental studies are necessary to determine the influence of the PLL for aspects such as the solid electrolyte interface, dendrite formation, and crack formation. View Full-Text
Keywords: density functional theory; molecular interface design; electrode; anode; polypeptide interfactant density functional theory; molecular interface design; electrode; anode; polypeptide interfactant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Borge-Durán, I.; Grinberg, I.; Vega-Baudrit, J.R.; Nguyen, M.T.; Pereira-Pinheiro, M.; Thiel, K.; Noeske, P.-L.M.; Rischka, K.; Corrales-Ureña, Y.R. Application of Poly-L-Lysine for Tailoring Graphene Oxide Mediated Contact Formation between Lithium Titanium Oxide LTO Surfaces for Batteries. Polymers 2022, 14, 2150. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14112150

AMA Style

Borge-Durán I, Grinberg I, Vega-Baudrit JR, Nguyen MT, Pereira-Pinheiro M, Thiel K, Noeske P-LM, Rischka K, Corrales-Ureña YR. Application of Poly-L-Lysine for Tailoring Graphene Oxide Mediated Contact Formation between Lithium Titanium Oxide LTO Surfaces for Batteries. Polymers. 2022; 14(11):2150. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14112150

Chicago/Turabian Style

Borge-Durán, Ignacio, Ilya Grinberg, José R. Vega-Baudrit, Minh T. Nguyen, Marta Pereira-Pinheiro, Karsten Thiel, Paul-Ludwig M. Noeske, Klaus Rischka, and Yendry R. Corrales-Ureña. 2022. "Application of Poly-L-Lysine for Tailoring Graphene Oxide Mediated Contact Formation between Lithium Titanium Oxide LTO Surfaces for Batteries" Polymers 14, no. 11: 2150. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14112150

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