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Open AccessArticle

Towards Next-Generation Sustainable Composites Made of Recycled Rubber, Cenospheres, and Biobinder

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Rudolfs Cimdins Riga Biomaterials Innovations and Development Centre of RTU, Institute of General Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Pulka 3, Riga LV-1007, Latvia
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Scientific Laboratory of Powder Materials & Institute of Aeronautics, 6B Kipsalas Str., Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Riga Technical University, Riga LV-1048, Latvia
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Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, Scotland’s Rural College (SRUC), Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK
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School of Engineering, London South Bank University, 103 Borough Road, London SE 10AA, UK
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Maritime Transport Department, Latvian Maritime Academy, 12, Flotes Str., k-1, Riga LV-1016, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Krzysztof Formela
Polymers 2021, 13(4), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040574
Received: 18 December 2020 / Revised: 8 February 2021 / Accepted: 11 February 2021 / Published: 14 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Polymers and Composites from Biorenewable Resources)
The utilisation of industrial residual products to develop new value-added materials and reduce their environmental footprint is one of the critical challenges of science and industry. Development of new multifunctional and bio-based composite materials is an excellent opportunity for the effective utilisation of residual industrial products and a right step in the Green Deal’s direction as approved by the European Commission. Keeping the various issues in mind, we describe the manufacturing and characterisation of the three-component bio-based composites in this work. The key components are a bio-based binder made of peat, devulcanised crumb rubber (DCR) from used tyres, and part of the fly ash, i.e., the cenosphere (CS). The three-phase composites were prepared in the form of a block to investigate their mechanical properties and density, and in the form of granules for the determination of the sorption of water and oil products. We also investigated the properties’ dependence on the DCR and CS fraction. It was found that the maximum compression strength (in block form) observed for the composition without CS and DCR addition was 79.3 MPa, while the second-highest value of compression strength was 11.2 MPa for the composition with 27.3 wt.% of CS. For compositions with a bio-binder content from 17.4 to 55.8 wt.%, and with DCR contents ranging from 11.0 to 62.0 wt.%, the compressive strength was in the range from 1.1 to 2.0 MPa. Liquid-sorption analysis (water and diesel) showed that the maximum saturation of liquids, in both cases, was set after 35 min and ranged from 1.05 to 1.4 g·g −1 for water, and 0.77 to 1.25 g·g−1 for diesel. It was observed that 90% of the maximum saturation with diesel fuel came after 10 min and for water after 35 min. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable composites; crumb rubber; devulcanised crumb rubber; cenosphere; peat; biocomposite; hybrid material; bio-binder; oil absorption sustainable composites; crumb rubber; devulcanised crumb rubber; cenosphere; peat; biocomposite; hybrid material; bio-binder; oil absorption
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MDPI and ACS Style

Irtiseva, K.; Lapkovskis, V.; Mironovs, V.; Ozolins, J.; Thakur, V.K.; Goel, G.; Baronins, J.; Shishkin, A. Towards Next-Generation Sustainable Composites Made of Recycled Rubber, Cenospheres, and Biobinder. Polymers 2021, 13, 574. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040574

AMA Style

Irtiseva K, Lapkovskis V, Mironovs V, Ozolins J, Thakur VK, Goel G, Baronins J, Shishkin A. Towards Next-Generation Sustainable Composites Made of Recycled Rubber, Cenospheres, and Biobinder. Polymers. 2021; 13(4):574. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040574

Chicago/Turabian Style

Irtiseva, Kristine; Lapkovskis, Vjaceslavs; Mironovs, Viktors; Ozolins, Jurijs; Thakur, Vijay K.; Goel, Gaurav; Baronins, Janis; Shishkin, Andrei. 2021. "Towards Next-Generation Sustainable Composites Made of Recycled Rubber, Cenospheres, and Biobinder" Polymers 13, no. 4: 574. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040574

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