Effect of Needle Heating on the Sewing of Medical Textiles
1.1. Medical Gowns
1.2. Basic Thermal Mechanism of Needle Heating
- Heat flux is generated between the outer surface of the needle and the fabric; this phenomenon depends on the needle-penetration force, withdrawal, and the frictional coefficient.
- Heat conduction between the needle and the thread is another major source of heating, and depends on the friction coefficient of the needle and thread, as well as the material parameters.
1.3. Contactless Method of Needle Temperature Measurement
1.4. Sewing Needle Temperature
2. Materials and Methods
- Lockstitch machine (Brother Company, Berlin, Germany DD7100-905).
- Thermocouple by Omega (K type 5SC-TT-(K)-36-(36)).
- Thermocouple by Omega—wireless device and receiver (MWTC-D-K-868).
- Needles (Groz–Beckert, Stuttgart, Germany 100/16) R-type.
3. Results and Discussion
- The needle, thread, and fabric are all at room temperature.
- The needle is a cylinder with the same material composition throughout.
- λN is the thermal conductivity of the needle material, and is significantly higher than that of the sewing thread λy and fabric λF. Here it is discreetly assumed that both the thread and fabric have lumped thermal properties, i.e., each has unchanging thermal conductivities, represented by single value.
- The thread and textile fabric are considered homogenous, with constant thermal conductivity value throughout.
- Radiation heat can be neglected due to the small size of the needle and a smaller contribution compared to other factors.
- In this model, it is estimated that friction heat is assumed as Q = F*v , where F is friction force and v is the relative velocity of the two surfaces.
- γ is the ratio determining the amount of heat distribution when two materials rub together. Partition ratio is calculated, using the Charron’s relation , as:
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Material||Manufacturing Technique||Weight [g/m2]||Thickness [mm] (S.D)||Layers Used|
|PP||Spun-bonded melt-blown polypropylene||75||1.2 (±0.15)||3|
|PET||Z/S||40||Amman® (Liberec, Czech Republic)|
|Partition ratio of heat gain between needle and thread using Charron’s relation.|
|Partition ratio of heat gain between needle and fabric using Charron’s relation.|
|Coefficient of friction between needle and sewing thread.|
|Coefficient of friction between fabric and sewing thread.|
|Maximum tension of sewing thread during sewing cycle.|
|Angle of sewing thread with respect to the needle.|
|Velocity of needle with respect to the fabric.|
|Needle penetration force with respect to the fabric.|
|Velocity of thread with respect to the needle.|
|Heat partition ratio (fabric & needle) .||0.945||-|
|Heat partition ratio (thread & needle) .||0.958||-|
|Density thread .||y||1400||kg/m3|
|Specific heat of thread .||Cy||750||J/kgK|
|Thermal conductivity of thread .||y||0.15||W/mK|
|Density of fabric .||f||920||kg/m3|
|Specific heat of fabric .||Cf||1700||J/kgK|
|Thermal conductivity of fabric [experimental].||f||0.04||W/mK|
|Density of needle .||n||7850||kg/m3|
|Specific heat of needle .||Cn||523||J/kgK|
|Thermal conductivity of needle .||n||40||W/mK|
|Friction coefficient of needle and thread [experimental value].||0.3||-|
|Friction coefficient of needle and fabric [experimental value].||0.21||-|
|Tension thread maximum [29,30].||1.05||N|
|Needle velocity [experimental value].||2.3||m/s|
|Machine speed (to be used with constant to balance the equation).||Vm||1000–4500||r/min|
|Needle and thread angle of contact .||60||o|
|Frictional normal penetration force to needle from fabric [experimental value].||2.5||N|
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Mazari, A. Effect of Needle Heating on the Sewing of Medical Textiles. Polymers 2021, 13, 4405. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244405
Mazari A. Effect of Needle Heating on the Sewing of Medical Textiles. Polymers. 2021; 13(24):4405. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244405Chicago/Turabian Style
Mazari, Adnan. 2021. "Effect of Needle Heating on the Sewing of Medical Textiles" Polymers 13, no. 24: 4405. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244405