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Article

Poly-ε-Caprolactone/Fibrin-Alginate Scaffold: A New Pro-Angiogenic Composite Biomaterial for the Treatment of Bone Defects

1
Faculty of Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059, Australia
2
Regenerative Biomaterials Group, The RAFT Institute & The Griffin Institute, Northwick Park & Saint Mark’s Hospital, London HA1 3UJ, UK
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 1AL, UK
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Division of Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering, Eastman Dental Institute, University College London, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, UK
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Medical Engineering Research Facility, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059, Australia
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UCL Eastman-Korea Dental Medicine Innovation Centre, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea
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Department of Nanobiomedical Science & BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jin-Jia Hu and Solaiman Tarafder
Polymers 2021, 13(19), 3399; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193399
Received: 3 September 2021 / Revised: 28 September 2021 / Accepted: 29 September 2021 / Published: 2 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering)
We hypothesized that a composite of 3D porous melt-electrowritten poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) coated throughout with a porous and slowly biodegradable fibrin/alginate (FA) matrix would accelerate bone repair due to its angiogenic potential. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the open pore structure of the FA matrix was maintained in the PCL/FA composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry showed complete coverage of the PCL fibres by FA, and the PCL/FA crystallinity was decreased compared with PCL. In vitro cell work with osteoprogenitor cells showed that they preferentially bound to the FA component and proliferated on all scaffolds over 28 days. A chorioallantoic membrane assay showed more blood vessel infiltration into FA and PCL/FA compared with PCL, and a significantly higher number of bifurcation points for PCL/FA compared with both FA and PCL. Implantation into a rat cranial defect model followed by microcomputed tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry after 4- and 12-weeks post operation showed fast early bone formation at week 4, with significantly higher bone formation for FA and PCL/FA compared with PCL. However, this phenomenon was not extrapolated to week 12. Therefore, for long-term bone regeneration, tuning of FA degradation to ensure syncing with new bone formation is likely necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone regeneration; angiogenesis; polycaprolactone; fibrin; alginate bone regeneration; angiogenesis; polycaprolactone; fibrin; alginate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ren, J.; Kohli, N.; Sharma, V.; Shakouri, T.; Keskin-Erdogan, Z.; Saifzadeh, S.; Brierly, G.I.; Knowles, J.C.; Woodruff, M.A.; García-Gareta, E. Poly-ε-Caprolactone/Fibrin-Alginate Scaffold: A New Pro-Angiogenic Composite Biomaterial for the Treatment of Bone Defects. Polymers 2021, 13, 3399. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193399

AMA Style

Ren J, Kohli N, Sharma V, Shakouri T, Keskin-Erdogan Z, Saifzadeh S, Brierly GI, Knowles JC, Woodruff MA, García-Gareta E. Poly-ε-Caprolactone/Fibrin-Alginate Scaffold: A New Pro-Angiogenic Composite Biomaterial for the Treatment of Bone Defects. Polymers. 2021; 13(19):3399. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193399

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ren, Jiongyu, Nupur Kohli, Vaibhav Sharma, Taleen Shakouri, Zalike Keskin-Erdogan, Siamak Saifzadeh, Gary I. Brierly, Jonathan C. Knowles, Maria A. Woodruff, and Elena García-Gareta. 2021. "Poly-ε-Caprolactone/Fibrin-Alginate Scaffold: A New Pro-Angiogenic Composite Biomaterial for the Treatment of Bone Defects" Polymers 13, no. 19: 3399. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193399

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