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Article

Viscoelastic Effects on the Response of Electroelastic Materials

1
Instituto de Tecnología Eléctrica, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
2
Instituto Universitario de Matemática Multidisciplinar, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
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Departamento de Termodinámica Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
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Instituto Tecnológico de la Energía-Redit, 46980 València, Spain
5
Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Internacional de la Rioja, 26002 La Rioja, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Raquel Verdejo
Polymers 2021, 13(13), 2198; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13132198
Received: 7 June 2021 / Revised: 23 June 2021 / Accepted: 24 June 2021 / Published: 1 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Physics and Theory)
Electroelastic materials, as for example, 3M VHB 4910, are attracting attention as actuators or generators in some developments and applications. This is due to their capacity of being deformed when submitted to an electric field. Some models of their actuation are available, but recently, viscoelastic models have been proposed to give an account of the dissipative behaviour of these materials. Their response to an external mechanical or electrical force field implies a relaxation process towards a new state of thermodynamic equilibrium, which can be described by a relaxation time. However, it is well known that viscoelastic and dielectric materials, as for example, polymers, exhibit a distribution of relaxation times instead of a single relaxation time. In the present approach, a continuous distribution of relaxation times is proposed via the introduction of fractional derivatives of the stress and strain, which gives a better account of the material behaviour. The application of fractional derivatives is described and a comparison with former results is made. Then, a double generalisation is carried out: the first one is referred to the viscoelastic or dielectric models and is addressed to obtain a nonsymmetric spectrum of relaxation times, and the second one is the adoption of the more realistic Mooney–Rivlin equation for the stress–strain relationship of the elastomeric material. A modified Mooney–Rivlin model for the free energy density of a hyperelastic material, VHB 4910 has been used based on experimental results of previous authors. This last proposal ensures the appearance of the bifurcation phenomena which is analysed for equibiaxial dead loads; time-dependent bifurcation phenomena are predicted by the extended Mooney–Rivlin equations. View Full-Text
Keywords: viscoelasticity; electroelastic materials; fractional derivatives; bifurcations viscoelasticity; electroelastic materials; fractional derivatives; bifurcations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Diaz-Calleja, R.; Ginestar, D.; Compañ Moreno, V.; Llovera-Segovia, P.; Burgos-Simón, C.; Cortés, J.C.; Quijano, A.; Díaz-Boils, J. Viscoelastic Effects on the Response of Electroelastic Materials. Polymers 2021, 13, 2198. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13132198

AMA Style

Diaz-Calleja R, Ginestar D, Compañ Moreno V, Llovera-Segovia P, Burgos-Simón C, Cortés JC, Quijano A, Díaz-Boils J. Viscoelastic Effects on the Response of Electroelastic Materials. Polymers. 2021; 13(13):2198. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13132198

Chicago/Turabian Style

Diaz-Calleja, Ricardo, Damián Ginestar, Vícente Compañ Moreno, Pedro Llovera-Segovia, Clara Burgos-Simón, Juan Carlos Cortés, Alfredo Quijano, and Joaquín Díaz-Boils. 2021. "Viscoelastic Effects on the Response of Electroelastic Materials" Polymers 13, no. 13: 2198. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13132198

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