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Review

Two-Photon Polymerization: Functionalized Microstructures, Micro-Resonators, and Bio-Scaffolds

1
Photonics Group, São Carlos Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Carlos 13566-590, SP, Brazil
2
Device Research Laboratory, “Gleb Wataghin” Institute of Physics, University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-859, SP, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally to this work as the first author.
Academic Editor: Lech Sznitko
Polymers 2021, 13(12), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13121994
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 31 May 2021 / Accepted: 3 June 2021 / Published: 18 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers and Lasers – Processing, Development and Applications)
The direct laser writing technique based on two-photon polymerization (TPP) has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Its remarkable characteristics, such as 3D capability, sub-diffraction resolution, material flexibility, and gentle processing conditions, have made it suitable for several applications in photonics and biosciences. In this review, we present an overview of the progress of TPP towards the fabrication of functionalized microstructures, whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonators, and microenvironments for culturing microorganisms. We also describe the key physical-chemical fundamentals underlying the technique, the typical experimental setups, and the different materials employed for TPP. View Full-Text
Keywords: direct laser writing; ultrashort laser pulses; two-photon polymerization; functional microdevices; whispering gallery mode microresonators; scaffolds for biological applications direct laser writing; ultrashort laser pulses; two-photon polymerization; functional microdevices; whispering gallery mode microresonators; scaffolds for biological applications
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MDPI and ACS Style

Otuka, A.J.G.; Tomazio, N.B.; Paula, K.T.; Mendonça, C.R. Two-Photon Polymerization: Functionalized Microstructures, Micro-Resonators, and Bio-Scaffolds. Polymers 2021, 13, 1994. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13121994

AMA Style

Otuka AJG, Tomazio NB, Paula KT, Mendonça CR. Two-Photon Polymerization: Functionalized Microstructures, Micro-Resonators, and Bio-Scaffolds. Polymers. 2021; 13(12):1994. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13121994

Chicago/Turabian Style

Otuka, Adriano J.G., Nathália B. Tomazio, Kelly T. Paula, and Cleber R. Mendonça 2021. "Two-Photon Polymerization: Functionalized Microstructures, Micro-Resonators, and Bio-Scaffolds" Polymers 13, no. 12: 1994. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13121994

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