Next Article in Journal
Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Cu2O Cabbage/RGO Nanocomposites under Visible Light Irradiation
Next Article in Special Issue
Articular and Artificial Cartilage, Characteristics, Properties and Testing Approaches—A Review
Previous Article in Journal
Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Bonded Patch Repairs of a Rubber Reinforced Composite Conveyor Belt
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Gamma Radiation on the Sterility Assurance, Antibacterial Ability, and Biocompatibility of Impregnated Hydrogel Macrosphere Protein and Drug Release
Review

Jojoba Oil: An Updated Comprehensive Review on Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Uses, and Toxicity

1
Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
2
Independent Researcher, La Route de la Haule, St. Peter, Jersey JE3 7BA, UK
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pharmacy Program, Batterjee Medical College, P.O. Box 6231, Jeddah 21442, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
5
Laboratory of Bioresources, Biotechnologies, Ethnopharmacology, and Health, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohamed I, Oujda 60000, Morocco
6
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80260, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
7
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, P.O. Box 7067, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bramasta Nugraha
Polymers 2021, 13(11), 1711; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111711
Received: 28 April 2021 / Revised: 20 May 2021 / Accepted: 21 May 2021 / Published: 24 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials in Biomedical Application)
Jojoba is a widely used medicinal plant that is cultivated worldwide. Its seeds and oil have a long history of use in folklore to treat various ailments, such as skin and scalp disorders, superficial wounds, sore throat, obesity, and cancer; for improvement of liver functions, enhancement of immunity, and promotion of hair growth. Extensive studies on Jojoba oil showed a wide range of pharmacological applications, including antioxidant, anti-acne and antipsoriasis, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antipyretic, analgesic, antimicrobial, and anti-hyperglycemia activities. In addition, Jojoba oil is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, especially in cosmetics for topical, transdermal, and parenteral preparations. Jojoba oil also holds value in the industry as an anti-rodent, insecticides, lubricant, surfactant, and a source for the production of bioenergy. Jojoba oil is considered among the top-ranked oils due to its wax, which constitutes about 98% (mainly wax esters, few free fatty acids, alcohols, and hydrocarbons). In addition, sterols and vitamins with few triglyceride esters, flavonoids, phenolic and cyanogenic compounds are also present. The present review represents an updated literature survey about the chemical composition of jojoba oil, its physical properties, pharmacological activities, pharmaceutical and industrial applications, and toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: jojoba; Simmondsia; chemistry; liquid wax; biology; toxicity; pharmaceutical/industrial uses jojoba; Simmondsia; chemistry; liquid wax; biology; toxicity; pharmaceutical/industrial uses
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Gad, H.A.; Roberts, A.; Hamzi, S.H.; Gad, H.A.; Touiss, I.; Altyar, A.E.; Kensara, O.A.; Ashour, M.L. Jojoba Oil: An Updated Comprehensive Review on Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Uses, and Toxicity. Polymers 2021, 13, 1711. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111711

AMA Style

Gad HA, Roberts A, Hamzi SH, Gad HA, Touiss I, Altyar AE, Kensara OA, Ashour ML. Jojoba Oil: An Updated Comprehensive Review on Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Uses, and Toxicity. Polymers. 2021; 13(11):1711. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111711

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gad, Heba A., Autumn Roberts, Samirah H. Hamzi, Haidy A. Gad, Ilham Touiss, Ahmed E. Altyar, Osama A. Kensara, and Mohamed L. Ashour. 2021. "Jojoba Oil: An Updated Comprehensive Review on Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Uses, and Toxicity" Polymers 13, no. 11: 1711. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111711

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop