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Article

Preparation and Characterization of Starch/Empty Fruit Bunch-Based Bioplastic Composites Reinforced with Epoxidized Oils

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Nan-Tai Street, Yongkang Dist., Tainan City 710, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2021, 13(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13010094
Received: 11 November 2020 / Revised: 12 December 2020 / Accepted: 15 December 2020 / Published: 29 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers)
This study examined the development of starch/oil palm empty fruit bunch-based bioplastic composites reinforced with either epoxidized palm oil (EPO) or epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), at various concentrations, in order to improve the mechanical and water-resistance properties of the bio-composites. The SEM micrographs showed that low content (0.75 wt%) of epoxidized oils (EOs), especially ESO, improved the compatibility of the composites, while high content (3 wt%) of EO induced many voids. The melting temperature of the composites was increased by the incorporation of both EOs. Thermal stability of the bioplastics was increased by the introduction of ESO. Low contents of EO led to a huge enhancement of tensile strength, while higher contents of EO showed a negative effect, due to the phase separation. The tensile strength increased from 0.83 MPa of the control sample to 3.92 and 5.42 MPa for the composites with 1.5 wt% EPO and 0.75 wt% ESO, respectively. EOs reduced the composites’ water uptake and solubility but increased the water vapor permeability. Overall, the reinforcing effect of ESO was better than EPO. These results suggested that both EOs can be utilized as modifiers to prepare starch/empty-fruit-bunch-based bioplastic composites with enhanced properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: starch; empty fruit bunch; epoxidized palm oil; epoxidized soybean oil; compatibilizer starch; empty fruit bunch; epoxidized palm oil; epoxidized soybean oil; compatibilizer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, J.; Ching, Y.C.; Chuah, C.H.; Liou, N.-S. Preparation and Characterization of Starch/Empty Fruit Bunch-Based Bioplastic Composites Reinforced with Epoxidized Oils. Polymers 2021, 13, 94. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13010094

AMA Style

Yang J, Ching YC, Chuah CH, Liou N-S. Preparation and Characterization of Starch/Empty Fruit Bunch-Based Bioplastic Composites Reinforced with Epoxidized Oils. Polymers. 2021; 13(1):94. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13010094

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Jianlei, Yern C. Ching, Cheng H. Chuah, and Nai-Shang Liou. 2021. "Preparation and Characterization of Starch/Empty Fruit Bunch-Based Bioplastic Composites Reinforced with Epoxidized Oils" Polymers 13, no. 1: 94. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13010094

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