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Open AccessArticle

End-of-Life Recycling Options of (Nano)Enhanced CFRP Composite Prototypes Waste—A Life Cycle Perspective

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IRES—Innovation in Research & Engineering Solutions, Rue Koningin Astritlaan 59B, 1780 Wemmel, Belgium
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RNANO Lab.—Research Lab of Advanced, Composite, Nano-Materials & Nanotechnology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, GR-15773 Zographos Athens, Greece
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INEGI—Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Management & LAETA—Associated Laboratory for Energy, Transports and Aeronautics, FEUP Campus, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 400, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
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AP&M—Anthony, Patrick and Murta Exportacao, Estrada Nacional 120-Falfeira—Lagos, 8600-308 Lagos, Portugal
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GSG—Global Safe Guard Ltd., 2 Longhorsley, Morpeth NE65 8RX, UK
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Brembo S.p.A, CURNO (Bergamo)—Via Brembo, 25, 24035 Curno, Italy
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RISE SICOMP AB, Fibervägen 2, 943 33 Öjebyn, Sweden
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(9), 2129; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12092129
Received: 24 August 2020 / Revised: 12 September 2020 / Accepted: 14 September 2020 / Published: 18 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reinforced Polymer Composites II)
Life cycle assessment is a methodology to assess environmental impacts associated with a product or system/process by accounting resource requirements and emissions over its life cycle. The life cycle consists of four stages: material production, manufacturing, use, and end-of-life. This study highlights the need to conduct life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the new product development process, as a means to assess and evaluate the environmental impacts of (nano)enhanced carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) prototypes over their entire life cycle. These prototypes, namely SleekFast sailing boat and handbrake lever, were manufactured by functionalized carbon fibre fabric and modified epoxy resin with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The environmental impacts of both have been assessed via LCA with a functional unit of ‘1 product piece’. Climate change has been selected as the key impact indicator for hotspot identification (kg CO2 eq). Significant focus has been given to the end-of-life phase by assessing different recycling scenarios. In addition, the respective life cycle inventories (LCIs) are provided, enabling the identification of resource hot spots and quantifying the environmental benefits of end-of-life options. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nano tubes (CNTs); carbon fibre reinforced polymer composite (CFRP); recycling; sustainability; end-of-life (EoL); carbon fibres (CFs) carbon nano tubes (CNTs); carbon fibre reinforced polymer composite (CFRP); recycling; sustainability; end-of-life (EoL); carbon fibres (CFs)
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Petrakli, F.; Gkika, A.; Bonou, A.; Karayannis, P.; Koumoulos, E.P.; Semitekolos, D.; Trompeta, A.-F.; Rocha, N.; Santos, R.M.; Simmonds, G.; Monaghan, G.; Valota, G.; Gong, G.; Charitidis, C.A. End-of-Life Recycling Options of (Nano)Enhanced CFRP Composite Prototypes Waste—A Life Cycle Perspective. Polymers 2020, 12, 2129.

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