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Article

Mechanistic Aspects of Condensed- and Gaseous-Phase Activities of Some Phosphorus-Containing Fire Retardants

Institute for Sustainable Industries and Liveable Cities, Victoria University, P.O. Box 14428, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia
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Polymers 2020, 12(8), 1801; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12081801
Received: 13 July 2020 / Revised: 31 July 2020 / Accepted: 9 August 2020 / Published: 11 August 2020
As a part of our ongoing investigations on passively fire protecting polymeric materials, we have been employing both reactive and additive routes involving phosphorus-containing compounds. These included inorganic and organic substances, and in the latter case, the phosphorus-bearing groups differed in terms of the chemical environments (phosphite, phosphate, phosphine, phosphine oxide and phosphonate ester) and oxidation state of the P atom (i.e., III, or V). The overall flammability profiles of wood substrates coated with the phosphorus-containing compounds were obtained through cone calorimetric measurements. The elemental composition, morphology and chemical natures of the char residues, obtained from the cone tests, were analysed through a variety of spectroscopic, chromatographic and spectrometric means. From the complementary information, obtained through these analyses, some probable mechanistic pathways that underpin the condensed- and gaseous-phase activities of the different additives are suggested. It was found that the inorganic solid additive, i.e., (NH4)2HPO4, underwent a two-step degradation, yielding ammonia gas and phosphoric acid. Furthermore, the liquid additives, owing to their volatility as compared to the solid ones, showed a relatively higher presence in the vapour phase than volatile fragments emanating from the latter ones (i.e., from phosphine and the phosphine oxides). View Full-Text
Keywords: passive fire protection; phosphorus compounds; char analyses; mechanisms of flame retardance passive fire protection; phosphorus compounds; char analyses; mechanisms of flame retardance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thomas, A.; Arun, M.; Moinuddin, K.; Joseph, P. Mechanistic Aspects of Condensed- and Gaseous-Phase Activities of Some Phosphorus-Containing Fire Retardants. Polymers 2020, 12, 1801. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12081801

AMA Style

Thomas A, Arun M, Moinuddin K, Joseph P. Mechanistic Aspects of Condensed- and Gaseous-Phase Activities of Some Phosphorus-Containing Fire Retardants. Polymers. 2020; 12(8):1801. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12081801

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thomas, Ananya, Malavika Arun, Khalid Moinuddin, and Paul Joseph. 2020. "Mechanistic Aspects of Condensed- and Gaseous-Phase Activities of Some Phosphorus-Containing Fire Retardants" Polymers 12, no. 8: 1801. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12081801

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