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The Role of Reduced Graphene Oxide in the Suspension Polymerization of Styrene and Its Effect on the Morphology and Thermal Properties of the Polystyrene/rGO Nanocomposites
Open AccessReview

Polymethyl Methacrylate-Based Bone Cements Containing Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Oxide: An Overview of Physical, Mechanical, and Biological Properties

Advanced Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Department, School of Advanced Technologes in Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran
Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran
Advanced Membrane Technology Research Center (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor 81310, Malaysia
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576, Singapore
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(7), 1469;
Received: 19 May 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
Every year, millions of people in the world get bone diseases and need orthopedic surgery as one of the most important treatments. Owing to their superior properties, such as acceptable biocompatibility and providing great primary bone fixation with the implant, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based bone cements (BCs) are among the essential materials as fixation implants in different orthopedic and trauma surgeries. On the other hand, these BCs have some disadvantages, including Lack of bone formation and bioactivity, and low mechanical properties, which can lead to bone cement (BC) failure. Hence, plenty of studies have been concentrating on eliminating BC failures by using different kinds of ceramics and polymers for reinforcement and also by producing composite materials. This review article aims to evaluate mechanical properties, self-setting characteristics, biocompatibility, and bioactivity of the PMMA-based BCs composites containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon-based compounds. In the present study, we compared the effects of CNTs and GO as reinforcement agents in the PMMA-based BCs. Upcoming study on the PMMA-based BCs should concentrate on trialing combinations of these carbon-based reinforcing agents as this might improve beneficial characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone cements; carbon; polymethylmethacrylate; reinforcement materials bone cements; carbon; polymethylmethacrylate; reinforcement materials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Soleymani Eil Bakhtiari, S.; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H.R.; Karbasi, S.; Tavakoli, M.; Razzaghi, M.; Ismail, A.F.; RamaKrishna, S.; Berto, F. Polymethyl Methacrylate-Based Bone Cements Containing Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Oxide: An Overview of Physical, Mechanical, and Biological Properties. Polymers 2020, 12, 1469.

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