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Open AccessArticle

Extracted Compounds from Neem Leaves as Antimicrobial Agent on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Seaweed-Based Biopolymer Films

1
School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
2
Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
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Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704 Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
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School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
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School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang 18000, Malaysia
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Environment and Forestry Office of the Provincial Government of Aceh, Banda Aceh 23239, Indonesia
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Chemical Engineering Department, Universitas Serambi Mekkah, Tgk. Imum Lueng Bata Street, Batoh, Banda Aceh 23249, Indonesia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(5), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12051119
Received: 20 April 2020 / Revised: 9 May 2020 / Accepted: 11 May 2020 / Published: 14 May 2020
Neem leaves extract was incorporated into the matrix of seaweed biopolymer, and the seaweed-neem biocomposite films were irradiated with various doses of gamma irradiation (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 kGy). The physical, barrier, antimicrobial, and mechanical properties of the films were studied. The incorporation of 5% w/w neem leaves extract into a seaweed-based film, and gamma irradiation dose of 2.5 kGy was most effective for improved properties of the film. The results showed that the interfacial interaction of the seaweed-neem improved with physical changes in colour and opacity. The water solubility, moisture content, and water vapour permeability and biodegradability rate of the film reduced. The contact angle values increased, which was interpreted as improved hydrophobicity. The tensile strength and modulus of the films increased, while the elongation of the composite films decreased compared to the control film. The film’s antimicrobial activities against bacteria were improved. Thus, neem leaves extract in combination with the application of gamma irradiation enhanced the performance properties of the film that has potential as packaging material. View Full-Text
Keywords: Azadirachta indica; seaweed; antimicrobial; biodegradable; composite; biopolymer Azadirachta indica; seaweed; antimicrobial; biodegradable; composite; biopolymer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Uthaya Kumar, U.S.; Abdulmadjid, S.N.; Olaiya, N.G.; Amirul, A.A.; Rizal, S.; Rahman, A.A.; Alfatah, T.; Mistar, E.M.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S. Extracted Compounds from Neem Leaves as Antimicrobial Agent on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Seaweed-Based Biopolymer Films. Polymers 2020, 12, 1119.

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