Three different types of nanoparticles, 1D Cloisite 30B clay nanoplatelets, 2D halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), and 3D nanobamboo charcoals (NBCs) were employed to investigate the impact of nanoparticle shapes and structures on the material performance of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) bionanocomposite films in terms of their mechanical and thermal properties, morphological structures, and nanomechanical behaviour. The overall results revealed the superior reinforcement efficiency of NBCs to Cloisite 30B clays and HNTs, owing to their typical porous structures to actively interact with PVA matrices in the combined formation of strong mechanical and hydrogen bondings. Three-dimensional NBCs also achieved better nanoparticle dispersibility when compared with 1D Cloisite 30B clays and 2D HNTs along with higher thermal stability, which was attributed to their larger interfacial regions when characterised for the nanomechanical behaviour of corresponding bionanocomposite films. Our study offers an insightful guidance to the appropriate selection of nanoparticles as effective reinforcements and the further sophisticated design of bionanocomposite materials.
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