This study manufactured a horseshoe pattern (HP)-type electrical heating element based on a graphene/polylactic acid (GR/PLA) filament using CFDM (conveyor-fused deposition modeling) 3D printing technology, which is a new manufacturing process technology. CFDM 3D printing HP was fabricated in the different printing directions of 0°, 45°, and 90°. To confirm the effects of different 3D printing directions, the morphology, surface resistivity, and electrical heating properties of the different HPs were analyzed. In addition, the CFDM 3D-printed HPs made using different printing directions were printed on cotton fabric to confirm their applicability as fabric heating elements, and their electrical heating properties were measured. Regarding the morphology of the GR/PLA-HP, each sample was stacked according to the printing direction. It was also confirmed through FE-SEM images that the graphene was arranged according to the printing direction in which the nozzle moved. In the XRD pattern analysis, the GR/PLA-HP samples showed two diffraction peaks of PLA and graphene. The sizes of those peaks were increased in the order of 90° < 45° ≤ 0° according to the printing direction, which also affected the electrical and electric heating properties. The surface resistivities of the GR/PLA-HP samples were shown to be increased in the order of 0° < 45° < 90°, indicating that the electrical properties of GR/PLA HP printed at 0° were improved compared to those of the other samples. When 30 V was applied to three GR/PLA-HP samples according to the printing direction, the surface temperatures were decreased in the order of 0° < 45° < 90°, and the samples were indicated as 83.6, 80.6, and 52.5 °C, respectively; the same result was shown when the samples were printed on cotton fabric. Therefore, it was confirmed that the GR/PLA CFDM 3D-printed HP sample printed at 0° direction showed low surface resistivity and high surface temperature, so that improving the electrical heating properties.
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