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Open AccessReview

3D Printing for Hip Implant Applications: A Review

1
Centre of Advanced Engineering Materials, School of Engineering, Robert Gordon University, Riverside East, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7AQ, UK
2
Łukasiewicz Research Network—Krakow Institute of Technology, 73 Zakopianska Street, 30-418 Krakow, Poland
3
Rapid Prototyping Lab, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DU), Ministry of Defence, Girinagar, Pune, Maharashtra 411025, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(11), 2682; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12112682
Received: 28 October 2020 / Accepted: 5 November 2020 / Published: 13 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Polymer Materials II)
There is a rising demand for replacement, regeneration of tissues and organ repairs for patients who suffer from diseased/damaged bones or tissues such as hip pains. The hip replacement treatment relies on the implant, which may not always meet the requirements due to mechanical and biocompatibility issues which in turn may aggravate the pain. To surpass these limitations, researchers are investigating the use of scaffolds as another approach for implants. Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers significant potential as an efficient fabrication technique on personalized organs as it is capable of biomimicking the intricate designs found in nature. In this review, the determining factors for hip replacement and the different fabrication techniques such as direct 3D printing, Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and stereolithography (SLA) for hip replacement. The study also covers surface modifications of 3D printed implants and provides an overview on 3D tissue regeneration. To appreciate the current conventional hip replacement practices, the conventional metallic and ceramic materials are covered, highlighting their rationale as the material of choice. Next, the challenges, ethics and trends in the implants’ 3D printing are covered and conclusions drawn. The outlook and challenges are also presented here. The knowledge from this review indicates that 3D printing has enormous potential for providing a pathway for a sustainable hip replacement. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; biocompatibility; biomaterials; cell adhesion; hip replacement; tissue regeneration 3D printing; biocompatibility; biomaterials; cell adhesion; hip replacement; tissue regeneration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Okolie, O.; Stachurek, I.; Kandasubramanian, B.; Njuguna, J. 3D Printing for Hip Implant Applications: A Review. Polymers 2020, 12, 2682.

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