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Open AccessArticle

Phosphonic Acid Coupling Agent Modification of HAP Nanoparticles: Interfacial Effects in PLLA/HAP Bone Scaffold

State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
Institute of Bioadditive Manufacturing, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Nanchang 330013, China
Cancer Research Institute, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha 410013, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 199;
Received: 17 December 2019 / Revised: 7 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D and 4D Printing of (Bio)Materials)
In order to improve the interfacial bonding between hydroxyapatite (HAP) and poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), 2-Carboxyethylphosphonic acid (CEPA), a phosphonic acid coupling agent, was introduced to modify HAP nanoparticles. After this. the PLLA scaffold containing CEPA-modified HAP (C-HAP) was fabricated by selective laser sintering (frittage). The specific mechanism of interfacial bonding was that the PO32− of CEPA formed an electrovalent bond with the Ca2+ of HAP on one hand, and on the other hand, the –COOH of CEPA formed an ester bond with the –OH of PLLA via an esterification reaction. The results showed that C-HAP was homogeneously dispersed in the PLLA matrix and that it exhibited interconnected morphology pulled out from the PLLA matrix due to the enhanced interfacial bonding. As a result, the tensile strength and modulus of the scaffold with 20% C-HAP increased by 1.40 and 2.79 times compared to that of the scaffold with HAP, respectively. In addition, the scaffold could attract Ca2+ in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution by the phosphonic acid group to induce apatite layer formation and also release Ca2+ and PO43− by degradation to facilitate cell attachment, growth and proliferation. View Full-Text
Keywords: interfacial bonding; coupling agent; HAP; scaffold interfacial bonding; coupling agent; HAP; scaffold
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shuai, C.; Yu, L.; Yang, W.; Peng, S.; Zhong, Y.; Feng, P. Phosphonic Acid Coupling Agent Modification of HAP Nanoparticles: Interfacial Effects in PLLA/HAP Bone Scaffold. Polymers 2020, 12, 199.

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