Next Article in Journal
Addition of Graphite Filler to Enhance Electrical, Morphological, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties in Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate): Experimental Characterization and Material Modeling
Next Article in Special Issue
Polymer Clay Nano-composites
Previous Article in Journal
Bio-Based Epoxy Resins Based on Linseed Oil Cured with Naturally Occurring Acids
Previous Article in Special Issue
Advances in Halloysite Nanotubes–Polysaccharide Nanocomposite Preparation and Applications
Open AccessArticle

Dispersion and Performance of a Nanoclay/Whey Protein Isolate Coating upon its Upscaling as a Novel Ready-to-Use Formulation for Packaging Converters

1
IRIS Technology Solutions S.L., Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, 08860 Barcelona, Spain
2
Fraunhofer-Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV, 85354 Freising, Germany
3
Visum, NexusUCD, University College Dublin, D04 V1W8 Dublin, Ireland
4
MBN Nanomaterialia S.p.A., 31050 Vascon di Carbonera (TV), Italy
5
Faculty of Life Sciences, Albstadt-Sigmaringen University, 72488 Sigmaringen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Polymers 2019, 11(9), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11091410
Received: 24 July 2019 / Revised: 23 August 2019 / Accepted: 23 August 2019 / Published: 28 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Clay Nano-composites)
Studies on composition optimisation showed that the mixing of nanoclays to whey protein-isolate (WPI)-based coating formulations offers an effective strategy to reduce the oxygen permeability of coated polymer films. The scaling up of the various processing stages of these formulations was undertaken to prove their industrial feasibility. The aim was to investigate the effect of various preparation methods at different production scales (pilot- and semi-industrial scale) on the barrier performance and morphological properties of the applied nanocomposites. A nano-enhanced composition was converted into a so-called “ready-to-use” formulation by means of a solid-state pre-dispersion process using ball-milling. The process yielded a nearly dust-free, free-flowing powder containing agglomerated particles, which can easily be mixed with water. The preparation of a coating formulation using the ready-to-use granules and its upscaling for roll-to-roll converting at pilot- and semi-industrial scale was also successfully implemented. The effects of both the production at various scales and ultrasound treatment on the morphology and barrier performance of the nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, as well as oxygen permeability measurements. Results have shown that the addition of nanoclays to WPI-based coating formulations ultimately led to significantly reduced oxygen permeabilities to 0.59 cm3, 100 µm·m−2·d−1·bar−1 (barrier improvement factor, BIF of 5.4) and 0.62 cm3, 100 µm·m−2·d−1·bar−1 (BIF of 5.1) in cases of pilot- and semi-industrial-processed coatings, respectively, compared to a reference without nanoclay. In both cases, a similar degree of nanoparticle orientation was achieved. It was concluded that the solid state pre-dispersion of the nanoplatelets during the production of the ready-to-use formulation is the predominant process determining the ultimate degree of nanoparticle orientation and dispersion state. View Full-Text
Keywords: dispersion; coatings; whey protein isolate; nanocomposites; nanoclay, barrier; morphology dispersion; coatings; whey protein isolate; nanocomposites; nanoclay, barrier; morphology
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bugnicourt, E.; Brzoska, N.; Kucukpinar, E.; Philippe, S.; Forlin, E.; Bianchin, A.; Schmid, M. Dispersion and Performance of a Nanoclay/Whey Protein Isolate Coating upon its Upscaling as a Novel Ready-to-Use Formulation for Packaging Converters. Polymers 2019, 11, 1410.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop