Two types of cellulose membranes were produced by a classical wet phase inversion method from a solution of the polymer in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) by coagulation in water and selected primary alcohols. The first type were membranes made from pure cellulose (CEL). The second type were membranes obtained by adding nanosized graphene oxide (GO) to the cellulose solution. The process of precipitation and selection of the coagulant affected the structure of the membranes, which in turn affected their usability and applicability. The results of the presented studies show that the physicochemical properties of the coagulant used (e.g., molecular mass and dipole moment) play important roles in this process. It was found that both the content and dimensions of the pores depended on the molecular mass of the coagulant used. It was also found that the dipole moment of coagulant molecules had a large influence on the volume content of the pores (e.g., the 1-octanol (Oc) membrane had a dipole moment of 1.71 D; Φ
= 1.82%). We investigated the effect of the type of coagulant on the porous structure of CEL membranes and how this affected the transport properties of the membranes (e.g., for the distilled water (W) membrane, Jv
= 5.24 ± 0.39 L/m2
h; for the Oc membrane, Jv
= 92.19 ± 1.51 L/m2
h). The paper presents the results of adding GO nanoparticles in terms of the structure, morphology, and transport properties of GO/CEL membranes (e.g., for composite membrane F (containing 20% GO), Jv
= 40.20 ± 2.33 L/m2
h). In particular, it describes their extremely high ability to remove heavy metal ions.
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