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Enhanced In-Vitro Hemozoin Polymerization by Optimized Process using Histidine-Rich Protein II (HRPII)

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-Ro, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 02841, Korea
Department of Food Science and Engineering, Dongyang Mirae University, 445, Gyeongin-ro, Guro-gu, Seoul 08221, Korea
Department of Interdisciplinary Bio-Micro System Technology, College of Engineering, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Korea
Department of Biotechnology, Korea University, 145, Anam-Ro, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 02841, Korea
Department of Biotechnology, Sangmyung University, 20, Hongjimun 2-Gil, Jongno-Gu, Seoul 03016, Korea
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kwangwoon University, 20, Kwangwoon-Ro, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 01897, Korea
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(7), 1162;
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Production and Application of Biopolymers)
PDF [3855 KB, uploaded 8 July 2019]


Conductive biopolymers, an important class of functional materials, have received attention in various fields because of their unique electrical, optical, and physical properties. In this study, the polymerization of heme into hemozoin was carried out in an in vitro system by the newly developed heme polymerase (histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-II)). The HRP-II was produced by recombinant E. coli BL21 from the Plasmodium falciparum gene. To improve the hemozoin production, the reaction conditions on the polymerization were investigated and the maximum production was achieved after about 790 μM at 34 °C with 200 rpm for 24 h. As a result, the production was improved about two-fold according to the stepwise optimization in an in vitro system. The produced hemozoin was qualitatively analyzed using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, it was confirmed that the enzymatically polymerized hemozoin had similar physical properties to chemically synthesized hemozoin. These results could represent a significant potential for nano-biotechnology applications, and also provide guidance in research related to hemozoin utilization. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopolymers; heme; hemozoin; HRP-II; polymerase biopolymers; heme; hemozoin; HRP-II; polymerase

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lee, J.H.; Kim, H.R.; Lee, J.H.; Lee, S.K.; Chun, Y.; Han, S.O.; Yoo, H.Y.; Park, C.; Kim, S.W. Enhanced In-Vitro Hemozoin Polymerization by Optimized Process using Histidine-Rich Protein II (HRPII). Polymers 2019, 11, 1162.

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