Next Article in Journal
Twisting of Fibers Balancing the Gel–Sol Transition in Cellulose Aqueous Suspensions
Previous Article in Journal
Fabrication of Water-Compatible Molecularly Imprinted Resin in a Hydrophilic Deep Eutectic Solvent for the Determination and Purification of Quinolones in Wastewaters
Previous Article in Special Issue
Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Engineered Functional Surfaces Based on Biodegradable Polymer and Biopolymer/Ceramic Composite Thin Films
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Tissue Engineering Strategies for Intervertebral Disc Treatment Using Functional Polymers

Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
Center for Convergence Bioceramic Materials, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Cheongju 28160, Korea
Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Gyeonggi-do 16229, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 872;
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Polymers for Biomedicine)
PDF [648 KB, uploaded 13 May 2019]


Intervertebral disc (IVD) is the fibrocartilage between the vertebrae, allowing the spine to move steadily by bearing multidirectional complex loads. Aging or injury usually causes degeneration of IVD, which is one of the main reasons for low back pain prevalent worldwide and reduced quality of life. While various treatment strategies for degenerative IVD have been studied using in vitro studies, animal experiments, and clinical trials, there are unsolved limitations for endogenous regeneration of degenerative IVD. In this respect, several tissue engineering strategies that are based on the cell and scaffolds have been extensively researched with positive outcomes for regeneration of IVD tissues. Scaffolds made of functional polymers and their diverse forms mimicking the macro- and micro-structure of native IVD enhance the biological and mechanical properties of the scaffolds for IVD regeneration. In this review, we discuss diverse morphological and functional polymers and tissue engineering strategies for endogenous regeneration of degenerative IVD. Tissue engineering strategies using functional polymers are promising therapeutics for fundamental and endogenous regeneration of degenerative IVD.
Keywords: tissue engineering; functional polymers; intervertebral disc; degenerative disc; regeneration tissue engineering; functional polymers; intervertebral disc; degenerative disc; regeneration
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, Y.; Park, M.H.; Lee, K. Tissue Engineering Strategies for Intervertebral Disc Treatment Using Functional Polymers. Polymers 2019, 11, 872.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top