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Open AccessArticle

Efficient Conversion of Lignin Waste to High Value Bio-Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials

1
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI 53726, USA
2
Ligsteel LLC, Madison, WI 53726, USA
3
Department of Sustainable Bioproducts, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(4), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11040623
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties, Applications and Perspectives of Lignin)
Lignin graphene oxide was oxidized after Kraft lignin was graphitized by thermal catalytic conversion. The reduced lignin graphene oxide was derived from lignin graphene oxide through thermal reduction treatment. These Kraft lignin, lignin graphite, lignin graphene oxide, and reduced lignin graphene oxide were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, raman microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed lignin graphite converted from Kraft lignin had fewer layers with smaller lateral size than natural graphite. Moreover, lignin graphene oxide was successfully produced from lignin graphite by an oxidation reaction with an hour-long reaction time, which has remarkably shorter reaction time than that of graphene oxide made from natural graphite. Meanwhile, this lignin-derived graphene oxide had the same XRD, FTIR and Raman peaks as graphene oxide oxidized from natural graphite. The SEM, TEM, and AFM images showed that this lignin graphene oxide with 1–3 average layers has a smaller lateral size than that of graphene oxide made from natural graphite. Moreover, the lignin graphene oxide can be reduced to reduced lignin graphene oxide to fabricate graphene-based aerogel, wire, and film for some potential applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: Kraft lignin; lignin graphite; lignin graphene oxide; reduced lignin graphene oxide; characterization; applications Kraft lignin; lignin graphite; lignin graphene oxide; reduced lignin graphene oxide; characterization; applications
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, J.; Yan, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, J.; Cai, Z. Efficient Conversion of Lignin Waste to High Value Bio-Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials. Polymers 2019, 11, 623.

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