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Polymers 2019, 11(3), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11030457

Alginate/Gelatin Hydrogels Reinforced with TiO2 and β-TCP Fabricated by Microextrusion-based Printing for Tissue Regeneration

1
Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Av. Eugenio Garza Sada #2501 Sur, Monterrey, NL 64849, Mexico
2
3D FACTORY MX, Ramón Treviño #1109 Col. Terminal, Monterrey, NL 64580, Mexico
3
Laboratorio Nacional de Manufactura Aditiva y Digital (MADIT), Autopista al Aeropuerto, Km., 9.5, Calle Alianza Norte #100, Parque PIIT, Apodaca, NL 66629, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies have become an attractive manufacturing process to fabricate scaffolds in tissue engineering. Recent research has focused on the fabrication of alginate complex shaped structures that closely mimic biological organs or tissues. Alginates can be effectively manufactured into porous three-dimensional networks for tissue engineering applications. However, the structure, mechanical properties, and shape fidelity of 3D-printed alginate hydrogels used for preparing tissue-engineered scaffolds is difficult to control. In this work, the use of alginate/gelatin hydrogels reinforced with TiO2 and β-tricalcium phosphate was studied to tailor the mechanical properties of 3D-printed hydrogels. The hydrogels reinforced with TiO2 and β-TCP showed enhanced mechanical properties up to 20 MPa of elastic modulus. Furthermore, the pores of the crosslinked printed structures were measured with an average pore size of 200 μm. Additionally, it was found that as more layers of the design were printed, there was an increase of the line width of the bottom layers due to its viscous deformation. Shrinkage of the design when the hydrogel is crosslinked and freeze dried was also measured and found to be up to 27% from the printed design. Overall, the proposed approach enabled fabrication of 3D-printed alginate scaffolds with adequate physical properties for tissue engineering applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogel; 3D printing; alginate; gelatin; tissue engineering hydrogel; 3D printing; alginate; gelatin; tissue engineering
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Urruela-Barrios, R.; Ramírez-Cedillo, E.; Díaz de León, A.; Alvarez, A.J.; Ortega-Lara, W. Alginate/Gelatin Hydrogels Reinforced with TiO2 and β-TCP Fabricated by Microextrusion-based Printing for Tissue Regeneration. Polymers 2019, 11, 457.

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