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Open AccessArticle

Selectivity of Copper by Amine-Based Ion Recognition Polymer Adsorbent with Different Aliphatic Amines

1
Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Centre of Hydrogen Energy, Institute of Future Energy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Johor, Malaysia
3
Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Quantum Beam Science Research Directorate, 1233, Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292, Japan
4
Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11121994
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 25 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 2 December 2019
This paper investigates the selectivity of GMA-based-non-woven fabrics adsorbent towards copper ion (Cu) functionalized with several aliphatic amines. The aliphatic amines used in this study were ethylenediamine (EDA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), triethylenetetramine (TETA), and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA). The non-woven polyethylene/polypropylene fabrics (NWF) were grafted with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) via pre-radiation grafting technique, followed by chemical functionalization with the aliphatic amine. To prepare the ion recognition polymer (IRP), the functionalized amine GMA-grafted-NWF sample was subjected to radiation crosslinking process along with the crosslinking agent, divinylbenzene (DVB), in the presence of Cu ion as a template in the matrix of the adsorbent. Functionalization with different aliphatic amine was carried out at different amine concentrations, grafting yield, reaction temperature, and reaction time to study the effect of different aliphatic amine onto amine density yield. At a concentration of 50% of amine and 50% of isopropanol, EDA, DETA, TETA, and TEPA had attained amine density around 5.12, 4.06, 3.04, and 2.56 mmol/g-ad, respectively. The amine density yield decreases further as the aliphatic amine chain grows longer. The experimental condition for amine functionalization process was fixed at 70% amine, 30% isopropanol, 60 °C for grafting temperature, and 2 h of grafting time for attaining 100% of grafting yield (Dg). The prepared adsorbents were characterized comprehensively in terms of structural and morphology with multiple analytical tools. An adsorptive removal and selectivity of Cu ion by the prepared adsorbent was investigated in a binary metal ion system. The IRP samples with a functional precursor of EDA, the smallest aliphatic amine had given the higher adsorption capacity and selectivity towards Cu ion. The selectivity of IRP samples reduces as the aliphatic amine chain grows longer, EDA to TEPA. However, IRP samples still exhibited remarkably higher selectivity in comparison to the amine immobilized GMA-g-NWF at similar adsorption experimental conditions. This observation indicates that IRP samples possess higher selectivity after incorporation of the ion recognition imprint technique via the radiation crosslinking process.
Keywords: pre-radiation grafting; chemical functionalization; aliphatic amine; radiation crosslinking pre-radiation grafting; chemical functionalization; aliphatic amine; radiation crosslinking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Othman, N.A.F.; Selambakkannu, S.; Abdullah, T.A.T.; Hoshina, H.; Sattayaporn, S.; Seko, N. Selectivity of Copper by Amine-Based Ion Recognition Polymer Adsorbent with Different Aliphatic Amines. Polymers 2019, 11, 1994.

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