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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of the Compatibility of Organosolv Lignin-Graphene Nanoplatelets with Photo-Curable Polyurethane in Stereolithography 3D Printing

1
Research Center for Sustainable Process Technology (CESPRO), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Kolej GENIUS Insan, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, Nilai 71800, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(10), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101544
Received: 27 August 2019 / Revised: 21 September 2019 / Accepted: 21 September 2019 / Published: 23 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reinforced Polymer Composites)
In this study, lignin has been extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers via an organosolv process. The organosolv lignin obtained was defined by the presence of hydroxyl-containing molecules, such as guaiacyl and syringyl, and by the presence of phenolic molecules in lignin. Subsequently, the extracted organosolv lignin and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) were utilized as filler and reinforcement in photo-curable polyurethane (PU), which is used in stereolithography 3D printing. The compatibility as well as the characteristic and structural changes of the composite were identified through the mechanical properties of the 3D-printed composites. Furthermore, the tensile strength of the composited lignin and graphene shows significant improvement as high as 27%. The hardness of the photo-curable PU composites measured by nanoindentation exhibited an enormous improvement for 0.6% of lignin-graphene at 92.49 MPa with 238% increment when compared with unmodified PU. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; composites; DLP; lignocellulose; nanoindentation 3D printing; composites; DLP; lignocellulose; nanoindentation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ibrahim, F.; Mohan, D.; Sajab, M.S.; Bakarudin, S.B.; Kaco, H. Evaluation of the Compatibility of Organosolv Lignin-Graphene Nanoplatelets with Photo-Curable Polyurethane in Stereolithography 3D Printing. Polymers 2019, 11, 1544.

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