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Polymers 2018, 10(5), 535;

High Performance Clean Fracturing Fluid Using a New Tri-Cationic Surfactant

State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Functional Elastomers, Hydrogels, and Ionogels)
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In order to improve the heat resistance of current clean fracturing fluids, a novel cationic surfactant (VES-T), composed of three single-chains and a spacer group, was designed and synthesized as thickener for the fluids. Various performances of such VES-T fluid in the presence of NaSal were evaluated carefully. Study of the rheological properties demonstrated that the fluids with varying concentrations (3–5 wt %) of VES-T have excellent thermal stabilities under ultra-high temperatures ranging from 140 to 180 °C. Until now, this is the highest temperature that the VES fracturing fluid could bear. The VES-T/NaSal fluid exhibited good viscoelasticity and proppant-suspending capability, which was attributed to the three-dimensional network formed by entangled wormlike micelles. Furthermore, the VES fracturing fluids can be completely gel broken by standard brines within 2 h. Thus, the VES-T synthesized in this work has a good prospect for utilization during the development of ultra-high temperature reservoirs. View Full-Text
Keywords: tri-cationic surfactant; wormlike micelles; network; fracturing fluid tri-cationic surfactant; wormlike micelles; network; fracturing fluid

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhao, J.; Fan, J.; Mao, J.; Yang, X.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, W. High Performance Clean Fracturing Fluid Using a New Tri-Cationic Surfactant. Polymers 2018, 10, 535.

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