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Polymers 2018, 10(10), 1162;

Lignin Phenol Formaldehyde Resoles Using Base-Catalysed Depolymerized Kraft Lignin

Wood K plus-Competence Center of Wood Composites and Wood Chemistry, Kompetenzzentrum Holz GmbH, Altenberger Str. 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria
Department of Material Science and Process Engineering, Institute of Wood Technology and Renewable Materials, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences-Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str. 24, A-3430 Tulln, Austria
Fraunhofer Center for Chemical-Biotechnological Processes CBP, 06237 Leuna, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Resins and Crosslinked Polymers from Renewable Resources)
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Lignin phenol formaldehyde (LPF) resols were produced using depolymerized lignin fractions at various levels of phenol substitution (50 to 70 wt %). To produce monomeric-rich (BCD-oil) and oligomeric (BCD-oligomers) bio-based phenolic compounds, softwood kraft lignin was base-catalysed degraded. These base-catalysed depolymerized (BCD) building blocks were further used to substitute phenol in the synthesis of phenolic resins and were characterized in detail (such as viscosity, free formaldehyde and phenol content, chemical composition, curing and bonding behaviour). The adhesive properties were compared to a phenol formaldehyde (PF) reference resin and a LPF with untreated kraft lignin. The resins synthesized with the two depolymerized lignin types differ significantly from each other with increasing phenol substitution. While with LPF-BCD-oligomers the viscosity increases and the bonding strength is not effected by increasing lignin content in the resin, a reduction of these properties could be observed with LPF-BCD-oil. Furthermore, LPF-BCD-oil showed similar curing behaviour and ultimate strength as the reference LPF. Adhesive bonds made using LPF-BCD-oligomers exhibited similar strength to those made using PF. Compared to the reference resins, it has been demonstrated that modified renewable lignin based phenolic components can be an equally performing alternative to phenol even for high degrees of substitution of 70%. View Full-Text
Keywords: lignin phenol formaldehyde; kraft lignin; base-catalysed depolymerisation; tensile shear strength lignin phenol formaldehyde; kraft lignin; base-catalysed depolymerisation; tensile shear strength

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Solt, P.; Rößiger, B.; Konnerth, J.; Van Herwijnen, H.W.G. Lignin Phenol Formaldehyde Resoles Using Base-Catalysed Depolymerized Kraft Lignin. Polymers 2018, 10, 1162.

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