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Polymers 2018, 10(10), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10101076

Electrically-Responsive Reversible Polyketone/MWCNT Network through Diels-Alder Chemistry

1
Programa Institucional de Fomento a la Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Ignacio Valdivieso 2409, P.O. Box 8940577, San Joaquín, Santiago 8940000, Chile
2
Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, Via Moruzzi 13, 56124 Pisa, Italy
3
Department of Chemical Product Engineering, ENTEG, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747AG Groningen, The Netherlands
4
Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747AG Groningen, The Netherlands
5
Laboratorio de Polímeros, Instituto de Ciencias Químicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 5110033, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 23 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Modern Thermoplastic Polymer Materials)
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Abstract

This study examines the preparation of electrically conductive polymer networks based on furan-functionalised polyketone (PK-Fu) doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reversibly crosslinked with bis-maleimide (B-Ma) via Diels-Alder (DA) cycloaddition. Notably, the incorporation of 5 wt.% of MWCNTs results in an increased modulus of the material, and makes it thermally and electrically conductive. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that MWCNTs, due to their diene/dienophile character, covalently interact with the matrix via DA reaction, leading to effective interfacial adhesion between the components. Raman spectroscopy points to a more effective graphitic ordering of MWCNTs after reaction with PK-Fu and B-Ma. After crosslinking the obtained composite via the DA reaction, the softening point (tan(δ) in dynamic mechanical analysis measurements) increases up to 155 °C, as compared to the value of 130 °C for the PK-Fu crosslinked with B-Ma and that of 140 °C for the PK-Fu/B-Ma/MWCNT nanocomposite before resistive heating (responsible for crosslinking). After grinding the composite, compression moulding (150 °C/40 bar) activates the retro-DA process that disrupts the network, allowing it to be reshaped as a thermoplastic. A subsequent process of annealing via resistive heating demonstrates the possibility of reconnecting the decoupled DA linkages, thus providing the PK networks with the same thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties as the crosslinked pristine systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: functionalised polyketone; MWCNT; electrically conductive plastic nanocomposite; reversible Diels-Alder; recycling; resistive heating annealing; reworkability functionalised polyketone; MWCNT; electrically conductive plastic nanocomposite; reversible Diels-Alder; recycling; resistive heating annealing; reworkability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Araya-Hermosilla, R.; Pucci, A.; Raffa, P.; Santosa, D.; Pescarmona, P.P.; Gengler, R.Y.N.; Rudolf, P.; Moreno-Villoslada, I.; Picchioni, F. Electrically-Responsive Reversible Polyketone/MWCNT Network through Diels-Alder Chemistry. Polymers 2018, 10, 1076.

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