Next Article in Journal
Synthesis and Applications of New Spin Crossover Compounds
Previous Article in Journal
Preparation and Characterization of Nanocrystalline TiO2 on Microsericite for High-Efficiency Photo-Energy Conversion of Methanol to Hydrogen
Previous Article in Special Issue
Influence of Pyruvic Acid and UV Radiation on the Morphology of Silica-carbonate Crystalline Biomorphs
Open AccessArticle

The Role of Calcium and Strontium as the Most Dominant Elements during Combinations of Different Alkaline Earth Metals in the Synthesis of Crystalline Silica-Carbonate Biomorphs

1
Departamento de Biología, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Campus Guanajuato, Universidad de Guanajuato, Noria Alta S/N, Col. Noria Alta, Guanajuato C.P. 36050, Mexico
2
Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2019, 9(8), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9080381
Received: 22 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 22 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystallization Under Special and Physical Environments)
  |  
PDF [10309 KB, uploaded 24 July 2019]
  |  

Abstract

The origin of life from the chemical point of view is an intriguing and fascinating topic, and is of continuous interest. Currently, the chemical elements that are part of the different cellular types from microorganisms to higher organisms have been described. However, although science has advanced in this context, it has not been elucidated yet which were the first chemical elements that gave origin to the first primitive cells, nor how evolution eliminated or incorporated other chemical elements to give origin to other types of cells through evolution. Calcium, barium, and strontium silica-carbonates have been obtained in vitro and named biomorphs, because they mimic living organism structures. Therefore, it is considered that these forms can resemble the first structures that were part of primitive organisms. Hence, the objective of this work was to synthesize biomorphs starting with different mixtures of alkaline earth metals—beryllium (Be2+), magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), barium (Ba2+), and strontium (Sr2+)—in the presence of nucleic acids, RNA and genomic DNA (gDNA). Our results allow us to infer that the stability of calcium followed by strontium had played an important role in the evolution of life since the Precambrian era until our current age. In this way, the presence of these two chemical elements as well as silica (in the primitive life) and some organic molecules give origin to a great variety of life forms, in which calcium is the most common dominating element in many living organisms as we know nowadays. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical origin of life; biomorphs; CaCO3 polymorphs; SrCO3 polymorphs chemical origin of life; biomorphs; CaCO3 polymorphs; SrCO3 polymorphs
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cuéllar-Cruz, M.; Moreno, A. The Role of Calcium and Strontium as the Most Dominant Elements during Combinations of Different Alkaline Earth Metals in the Synthesis of Crystalline Silica-Carbonate Biomorphs. Crystals 2019, 9, 381.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Crystals EISSN 2073-4352 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top