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Open AccessArticle

Band Topology of Bismuth Quantum Films

Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Center for Quantum Frontiers of Research and Technology (QFort), Tainan 701, Taiwan
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
College of Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China
Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801-3080, USA
Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801-2902, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2019, 9(10), 510;
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 24 September 2019 / Accepted: 26 September 2019 / Published: 30 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Novel Topological Materials)
Bismuth has been the key element in the discovery and development of topological insulator materials. Previous theoretical studies indicated that Bi is topologically trivial and it can transform into the topological phase by alloying with Sb. However, recent high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements strongly suggested a topological band structure in pure Bi, conflicting with the theoretical results. To address this issue, we studied the band structure of Bi and Sb films by ARPES and first-principles calculations. The quantum confinement effectively enlarges the energy gap in the band structure of Bi films and enables a direct visualization of the Z 2 topological invariant of Bi. We find that Bi quantum films in topologically trivial and nontrivial phases respond differently to surface perturbations. This way, we establish experimental criteria for detecting the band topology of Bi by spectroscopic methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: quantum well states; topological insulators; quantum confinement effects quantum well states; topological insulators; quantum confinement effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, T.-R.; Lu, Q.; Wang, X.; Lin, H.; Miller, T.; Chiang, T.-C.; Bian, G. Band Topology of Bismuth Quantum Films. Crystals 2019, 9, 510.

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