Metal sulphides, and in particular transition metal sulphide colloids, are a broad, versatile and exciting class of inorganic compounds which deserve growing interest and attention ascribable to the functional properties that many of them display. With respect to their oxide homologues, however, they are characterised by noticeably different chemical, structural and hence functional features. Their potential applications span several fields, and in many of the foreseen applications (e.g., in bioimaging and related fields), the achievement of stable colloidal suspensions of metal sulphides is highly desirable or either an unavoidable requirement to be met. To this aim, robust functionalisation strategies should be devised, which however are, with respect to metal or metal oxides colloids, much more challenging. This has to be ascribed, inter alia
, also to the still limited knowledge of the sulphides surface chemistry, particularly when comparing it to the better established, though multifaceted, oxide surface chemistry. A ground-breaking endeavour in this field is hence the detailed understanding of the nature of the complex surface chemistry of transition metal sulphides, which ideally requires an integrated experimental and modelling approach. In this review, an overview of the state-of-the-art on the existing examples of functionalisation of transition metal sulphides is provided, also by focusing on selected case studies, exemplifying the manifold nature of this class of binary inorganic compounds.
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