Next Article in Journal
Experimental and Numerical Study of Lattice Girder Composite Slabs with Monolithic Joint
Previous Article in Journal
Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Current and Future Research on NbO2 Thin Film Devices
Previous Article in Special Issue
Thermophysical Properties of Kaolin–Zeolite Blends up to 1100 °C
Open AccessArticle

First Report on the Geologic Occurrence of Natural Na–A Zeolite and Associated Minerals in Cretaceous Mudstones of the Paja Formation of Vélez (Santander), Colombia

1
Escuela de Geología, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga 680001, Colombia
2
Facultat de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de Barcelona, 680001 Barcelona, Spain
3
Escuela de Química, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga 680001, Colombia
4
School of Applied Sciences, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, UK
5
Retired Prof Founder Member of the British Zeolite Association, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Magdalena Król
Crystals 2021, 11(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11020218
Received: 7 February 2021 / Revised: 18 February 2021 / Accepted: 19 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zeolites)
This study reports for the first time the geologic occurrence of natural zeolite A and associated minerals in mudstones from the Cretaceous Paja Formation in the urban area of the municipality of Vélez (Santander), Colombia. These rocks are mainly composed of quartz, muscovite, pyrophyllite, kaolinite and chlorite group minerals, framboidal and cubic pyrite, as well as marcasite, with minor feldspar, sulphates, and phosphates. Total organic carbon (TOC), total sulfur (TS), and millimeter fragments of algae are high, whereas few centimeters and not biodiverse small ammonite fossils, and other allochemical components are subordinated. Na–A zeolite and associated mineral phases as sodalite occur just beside the interparticle micropores (honeycomb from framboidal, cube molds, and amorphous cavities). It is facilitated by petrophysical properties alterations, due to processes of high diagenesis, temperatures up to 80–100 °C, with weathering contributions, which increase the porosity and permeability, as well as the transmissivity (fluid flow), allowing the geochemistry remobilization and/or recrystallization of pre-existing silica, muscovite, kaolinite minerals group, salts, carbonates, oxides and peroxides. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal the mineral composition of the mudstones and scanning electron micrographs show the typical cubic morphology of Na–A zeolite of approximately 0.45 mμ in particle size. Our data show that the sequence of the transformation of phases is: Poorly crystalline aluminosilicate → sodalite → Na–A zeolite. A literature review shows that this is an unusual example of the occurrence of natural zeolites in sedimentary marine rocks recognized around the world. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural zeolite A; mineralogy; mudstones; crystal; sedimentary environment natural zeolite A; mineralogy; mudstones; crystal; sedimentary environment
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ríos-Reyes, C.A.; Reyes-Mendoza, G.A.; Henao-Martínez, J.A.; Williams, C.; Dyer, A. First Report on the Geologic Occurrence of Natural Na–A Zeolite and Associated Minerals in Cretaceous Mudstones of the Paja Formation of Vélez (Santander), Colombia. Crystals 2021, 11, 218. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11020218

AMA Style

Ríos-Reyes CA, Reyes-Mendoza GA, Henao-Martínez JA, Williams C, Dyer A. First Report on the Geologic Occurrence of Natural Na–A Zeolite and Associated Minerals in Cretaceous Mudstones of the Paja Formation of Vélez (Santander), Colombia. Crystals. 2021; 11(2):218. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11020218

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ríos-Reyes, Carlos A.; Reyes-Mendoza, German A.; Henao-Martínez, José A.; Williams, Craig; Dyer, Alan. 2021. "First Report on the Geologic Occurrence of Natural Na–A Zeolite and Associated Minerals in Cretaceous Mudstones of the Paja Formation of Vélez (Santander), Colombia" Crystals 11, no. 2: 218. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11020218

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop