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Article

Carbonation of High-Ca Fly Ashes under Flue Gas Conditions: Implications for Their Valorization in the Construction Industry

1
Institute of Energy Technologies, Barcelona Research Center in Multiscale Science and Engineering, Campus Diagonal Besòs, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Building C. Av. Eduard Maristany, 16, 08019 Barcelona, Spain
2
Faculty of Energy and Fuels, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow, Poland
3
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Campus Nord, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, B1-106C, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chongchong Qi
Crystals 2021, 11(11), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11111314
Received: 1 October 2021 / Revised: 23 October 2021 / Accepted: 23 October 2021 / Published: 28 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Processes for Climate Change Mitigation)
The utilization of high-calcium fly ashes (HCFA) from coal-fired power plants in the construction industry is problematic, since their high free lime contents can lead to durability problems. In this research, the carbonation of a high-CaO fly ash has been carried out using simulated flue gas and concentrated CO2, with the aim to assess the valorization potential of such materials in the construction industry. The results show that, at 7 bars total pressure, an up to 36% carbonation efficiency can be achieved in just 30 min when pure CO2 is used; a comparable result with flue gas requires about 4 h of reaction. On the other hand, experiments carried out at atmospheric pressure show significantly different carbonation efficiencies depending on the CO2 concentration of the gas used. All experiments resulted in a substantial reduction in the original free lime content, and after reaction times of 4 h (at atmospheric pressure) and pressures of 7 bars (for any reaction time >30 min), the final free lime values were low enough to comply with the requirements of European Standards for their utilization as additions in cement. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon dioxide; industrial waste; gas–solid carbonation; coal fly ash carbon dioxide; industrial waste; gas–solid carbonation; coal fly ash
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rausis, K.; Ćwik, A.; Casanova, I.; Zarębska, K. Carbonation of High-Ca Fly Ashes under Flue Gas Conditions: Implications for Their Valorization in the Construction Industry. Crystals 2021, 11, 1314. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11111314

AMA Style

Rausis K, Ćwik A, Casanova I, Zarębska K. Carbonation of High-Ca Fly Ashes under Flue Gas Conditions: Implications for Their Valorization in the Construction Industry. Crystals. 2021; 11(11):1314. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11111314

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rausis, Kwon, Agnieszka Ćwik, Ignasi Casanova, and Katarzyna Zarębska. 2021. "Carbonation of High-Ca Fly Ashes under Flue Gas Conditions: Implications for Their Valorization in the Construction Industry" Crystals 11, no. 11: 1314. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11111314

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