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Catalysts 2019, 9(3), 276;

Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production: Role of Sacrificial Reagents on the Activity of Oxide, Carbon, and Sulfide Catalysts

Department of Environmental Science, School of Science, Institute of Technology Sligo, Ash Lane, F91 YW50 Sligo, Ireland
Centre for Precision Engineering, Materials and Manufacturing Research (PEM), Institute of Technology Sligo, Ash Lane, F91 YW50 Sligo, Ireland
Chemical Engineering Program, Texas A&M University at Qatar, Doha 23874, Qatar
Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution)
PDF [2989 KB, uploaded 18 March 2019]


Photocatalytic water splitting is a sustainable technology for the production of clean fuel in terms of hydrogen (H2). In the present study, hydrogen (H2) production efficiency of three promising photocatalysts (titania (TiO2-P25), graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), and cadmium sulfide (CdS)) was evaluated in detail using various sacrificial agents. The effect of most commonly used sacrificial agents in the recent years, such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, lactic acid, glucose, sodium sulfide, sodium sulfite, sodium sulfide/sodium sulfite mixture, and triethanolamine, were evaluated on TiO2-P25, g-C3N4, and CdS. H2 production experiments were carried out under simulated solar light irradiation in an immersion type photo-reactor. All the experiments were performed without any noble metal co-catalyst. Moreover, photolysis experiments were executed to study the H2 generation in the absence of a catalyst. The results were discussed specifically in terms of chemical reactions, pH of the reaction medium, hydroxyl groups, alpha hydrogen, and carbon chain length of sacrificial agents. The results revealed that glucose and glycerol are the most suitable sacrificial agents for an oxide photocatalyst. Triethanolamine is the ideal sacrificial agent for carbon and sulfide photocatalyst. A remarkable amount of H2 was produced from the photolysis of sodium sulfide and sodium sulfide/sodium sulfite mixture without any photocatalyst. The findings of this study would be highly beneficial for the selection of sacrificial agents for a particular photocatalyst. View Full-Text
Keywords: photocatalysis; TiO2; g-C3N4; CdS; energy photocatalysis; TiO2; g-C3N4; CdS; energy

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Kumaravel, V.; Imam, M.D.; Badreldin, A.; Chava, R.K.; Do, J.Y.; Kang, M.; Abdel-Wahab, A. Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production: Role of Sacrificial Reagents on the Activity of Oxide, Carbon, and Sulfide Catalysts. Catalysts 2019, 9, 276.

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