C) composite was prepared using the microwave-assisted method and sulfonated using fuming sulfuric acid to produce a TiO2
C solid acid catalyst. The prepared solid acid catalyst was characterised using scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Crystallinity analysis confirmed that TiO2
C has an anatase structure, while analysis of its morphology showed a combination of spheres and particles with a diameter of 50 nm. The TiO2
C solid acid catalyst was tested for use in the catalytic dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). The effect of reaction time, reaction temperature, catalyst dosage, and solvent were investigated against the 5-HMF yield. The 5-HMF yield was found to be 90% under optimum conditions. The solid acid catalyst is very stable and can be reused for four catalytic cycles. Hence, the material has great potential for use in industrial applications and can be used for the direct conversion of fructose to 5-HMF because of its high activity and high reusability.
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