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Open AccessArticle

Development of TiO2-Carbon Composite Acid Catalyst for Dehydration of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural

DST-CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, Johannesburg 2028, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(2), 126;
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in TiO2 Photocatalysis and Applications)
A TiO2-Carbon (TiO2C) composite was prepared using the microwave-assisted method and sulfonated using fuming sulfuric acid to produce a TiO2C solid acid catalyst. The prepared solid acid catalyst was characterised using scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Crystallinity analysis confirmed that TiO2C has an anatase structure, while analysis of its morphology showed a combination of spheres and particles with a diameter of 50 nm. The TiO2C solid acid catalyst was tested for use in the catalytic dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). The effect of reaction time, reaction temperature, catalyst dosage, and solvent were investigated against the 5-HMF yield. The 5-HMF yield was found to be 90% under optimum conditions. The solid acid catalyst is very stable and can be reused for four catalytic cycles. Hence, the material has great potential for use in industrial applications and can be used for the direct conversion of fructose to 5-HMF because of its high activity and high reusability. View Full-Text
Keywords: TiO2C composite; acid catalyst; dehydration; fructose; 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural TiO2C composite; acid catalyst; dehydration; fructose; 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural
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Songo, M.M.; Moutloali, R.; Ray, S.S. Development of TiO2-Carbon Composite Acid Catalyst for Dehydration of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural. Catalysts 2019, 9, 126.

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