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Open AccessArticle

Photocatalytic Degradation of Atenolol by TiO2 Irradiated with an Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode: Performance, Kinetics, and Mechanism Insights

by Zhilin Ran 1,†, Liping Wang 2,†, Yuanhang Fang 3, Cong Ma 4,* and Shaofeng Li 5,*
1
Institute of Innovational Education Research, School of Transportation and Environment, Shenzhen Institute of Information Technology, Shenzhen 518172, China
2
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710064, China
3
Shenzhen Water Affairs (Group) Co. Ltd., Shenzhen 518033, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes, School of Environmental Science and engineering, Tiangong University, Tianjin 300387, China
5
Department of Building and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen Polytechnic, Shenzhen 518055, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work, which are co-first authors.
Catalysts 2019, 9(11), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9110876
Received: 4 September 2019 / Revised: 19 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 23 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Photocatalytic Wastewater Purification)
Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effect of several environmental factors on atenolol (ATL) degradation efficiency, including catalyst crystal phase (anatase TiO2, rutile TiO2, and mixed phase), catalyst dosage, UV-LED wavelength and intensity, co-existing anions, cations, and pH. The mixed phase (2 g/L) exhibited the best photocatalytic activity at 365 nm, with ATL (18.77 µM) completely oxidized within 1 h. These results suggest that: (i) The mixed phase exhibits the highest activity due to its large specific surface area and excellent charge separation efficiency. (ii) ATL can be effectively degraded using mixed phase TiO2 combined with UV-LED technology and the ATL degradation efficiency could reach 100% for 60 min; (iii) ATL photodegradation was more effective under 365 nm UV-LED than 254 nm, which was caused by the effect of light-induced charge separation; (iv) the ATL Degradation efficiency(De) decreased with an increase in initial ATL concentrations; and (v) co-existing anions and cations had different effects on the ATL De, mainly by changing the concentration of hydroxyl radicals. Considering that UV-LED is more energy-saving and environmentally friendly, and commercial TiO2 is cheap and easy to obtain, our research provides feasibility for practical application. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultraviolet light emitting diode; advanced oxidation process; nano titanium dioxide; photocatalysis; hydroxyl radical; atenolol ultraviolet light emitting diode; advanced oxidation process; nano titanium dioxide; photocatalysis; hydroxyl radical; atenolol
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Ran, Z.; Wang, L.; Fang, Y.; Ma, C.; Li, S. Photocatalytic Degradation of Atenolol by TiO2 Irradiated with an Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode: Performance, Kinetics, and Mechanism Insights. Catalysts 2019, 9, 876.

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