Fulfilling the direct inert C–H bond functionalization of raw materials that are earth-abundant and commercially available for the synthesis of diverse targeted organic compounds is very desirable and its implementation would mean a great reduction of the synthetic steps required for substrate prefunctionalization such as halogenation, borylation, and metalation. Successful C–H bond functionalization mainly resorts to homogeneous transition-metal catalysis, albeit sometimes suffering from poor catalyst reusability, nontrivial separation, and severe biotoxicity. TiO2
photocatalysis displays multifaceted advantages, such as strong oxidizing ability, high chemical stability and photostability, excellent reusability, and low biotoxicity. The chemical reactions started and delivered by TiO2
photocatalysts are well known to be widely used in photocatalytic water-splitting, organic pollutant degradation, and dye-sensitized solar cells. Recently, TiO2
photocatalysis has been demonstrated to possess the unanticipated ability to trigger the transformation of inert C–H bonds for C–C, C–N, C–O, and C–X bond formation under ultraviolet light, sunlight, and even visible-light irradiation at room temperature. A few important organic products, traditionally synthesized in harsh reaction conditions and with specially functionalized group substrates, are continuously reported to be realized by TiO2
photocatalysis with simple starting materials under very mild conditions. This prominent advantage—the capability of utilizing cheap and readily available compounds for highly selective synthesis without prefunctionalized reactants such as organic halides, boronates, silanes, etc.—is attributed to the overwhelmingly powerful photo-induced hole reactivity of TiO2
photocatalysis, which does not require an elevated reaction temperature as in conventional transition-metal catalysis. Such a reaction mechanism, under typically mild conditions, is apparently different from traditional transition-metal catalysis and beyond our insights into the driving forces that transform the C–H bond for C–C bond coupling reactions. This review gives a summary of the recent progress of TiO2
photocatalytic C–H bond activation for C–C coupling reactions and discusses some model examples, especially under visible-light irradiation.