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Article

Electrochemical Oxidation of Amines Using a Nitroxyl Radical Catalyst and the Electroanalysis of Lidocaine

1
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
2
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ohu University, 31-1 Misumido, Tomita-machi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2018, 8(12), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8120649
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
The nitroxyl radical of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) can electro-oxidize not only alcohols but also amines. However, TEMPO has low activity in a neutral aqueous solution due to the large steric hindrance around the nitroxyl radical, which is the active site. Therefore, nortropine N-oxyl (NNO) was synthesized to improve the catalytic ability of TEMPO and to investigate the electrolytic oxidation effect on amines from anodic current changes. Ethylamine, diethylamine, triethylamine, tetraethylamine, isopropylamine, and tert-butylamine were investigated. The results indicated that TEMPO produced no response current for any of the amines under physiological conditions; however, NNO did function as an electrolytic oxidation catalyst for diethylamine, triethylamine, and isopropylamine. The anodic current depended on amine concentration, which suggests that NNO can be used as an electrochemical sensor for amine compounds. In addition, electrochemical detection of lidocaine, a local anesthetic containing a tertiary amine structure, was demonstrated using NNO with a calibration curve of 0.1–10 mM. View Full-Text
Keywords: sensor; nitroxyl radical; electrocatalytic oxidation; lidocaine; TEMPO sensor; nitroxyl radical; electrocatalytic oxidation; lidocaine; TEMPO
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sato, K.; Ono, T.; Sasano, Y.; Sato, F.; Kumano, M.; Yoshida, K.; Dairaku, T.; Iwabuchi, Y.; Kashiwagi, Y. Electrochemical Oxidation of Amines Using a Nitroxyl Radical Catalyst and the Electroanalysis of Lidocaine. Catalysts 2018, 8, 649. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8120649

AMA Style

Sato K, Ono T, Sasano Y, Sato F, Kumano M, Yoshida K, Dairaku T, Iwabuchi Y, Kashiwagi Y. Electrochemical Oxidation of Amines Using a Nitroxyl Radical Catalyst and the Electroanalysis of Lidocaine. Catalysts. 2018; 8(12):649. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8120649

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sato, Katsuhiko, Tetsuya Ono, Yusuke Sasano, Fumiya Sato, Masayuki Kumano, Kentaro Yoshida, Takenori Dairaku, Yoshiharu Iwabuchi, and Yoshitomo Kashiwagi. 2018. "Electrochemical Oxidation of Amines Using a Nitroxyl Radical Catalyst and the Electroanalysis of Lidocaine" Catalysts 8, no. 12: 649. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8120649

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